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Research Papers and Talks by Dr. Alan K. Betts

Reverse chronological order. First paper is brief overview.

Papers published by the American Meteorological Society are subject to AMS copyright. View published open abstracts at http://dx.doi.org. Copyrighted papers may not be reproduced without explicit permission from the publisher.

Research datasets for download - completed:

VIMHEX 1972 data ; FIFE surface DATA

ERA-40 Monthly river basin DATA: 1958-1978; 1979-2002

ECMWF Modeled Precipitation and Surface Flux, Hourly precipitation observations, Rondonia, Brazil: 1999

LBA 1999 Rondonia pasture data archive


Betts, A. K. (2017). A brief overview of my research by decade.

Betts, A.K. and A.B. Tawfik (2016), Annual climatology of the diurnal cycle on the Canadian Prairies. Front. Earth Sci. 4:1, doi: 10.3389/feart.2016.00001

“Land-Atmosphere Interactions” Alpine Summer School, Lecture 1 "Review" by Alan Betts (2015).

Betts, A., (2015): Diurnal Cycle. In: Gerald R. North (editor-in-chief), John Pyle and Fuqing Zhang (editors). Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, 2nd edition, Vol 1, pp. 319–323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-382225-3.00135-3

Betts, A.K., R. Desjardins, D. Worth and B. Beckage (2014), Climate coupling between temperature, humidity, precipitation and cloud cover over the Canadian Prairies. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 13305-13326, doi:10.1002/2014JD022511.

D'Andrea, F., P. Gentine, A.K. Betts and B.R. Lintner (2014), Triggering Deep Convection with a Probabilistic Plume Model. J. Atmos. Sci., 71, 3881-3901. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-13-0340.1

Betts, A.K., R. Desjardins, D. Worth, S. Wang and J. Li (2014), Coupling of winter climate transitions to snow and clouds over the Prairies. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 1118-1139, doi:10.1002/2013JD021168.

Betts, A.K., R. Desjardins and D. Worth (2013), Cloud Radiative Forcing of the Diurnal Cycle Climate of the Canadian Prairies. J. Geophys. Res. 118, 8935–8953, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50593.

Gentine, P., A.K. Betts, B.R. Lintner, K.L. Findell, A. Tzella and F. D’Andrea (2013), A probabilistic-bulk model of mixed layer and convection: 1) Clear-sky case. J. Atmos. Sci. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-12-0145.1

Gentine, P., A.K. Betts, B.R. Lintner, K.L. Findell, C.C. van Heerwaarden and F. D’Andrea (2013), A probabilistic-bulk model of coupled mixed layer and convection: 2) Shallow convection case. J. Atmos. Sci. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-12-0146.1

Betts, A. K. and M. A. F. Silva Dias (2010), Progress in understanding land-surface-atmosphere coupling over the Amazon: a review. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 2(6), 20 pp., doi:10.3894/JAMES.2010.2.6. [Published Online 30 Jun. '10] http://james.agu.org/index.php/JAMES/article/view/v2n6/JAMES.2010.2.6

Betts, A. K. and J. C. Chiu (2010), Idealized model for changes in equilibrium temperature, mixed layer depth and boundary layer cloud over land in a doubled CO2 climate. J. Geophys. Res.,115, D19108, doi:10.1029/2009JD012888


Betts, A.K., G. Fisch, C. von Randow, M.A.F. Silva Dias, J.C.P. Cohen, R. da Silva and D.R. Fitzjarrald (2009), The Amazonian boundary layer and mesoscale circulations. P163-181 in “Amazonia and Global Change”, Michael Keller, Mercedes Bustamante, John Gash, and Pedro Silva Dias, Editors, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., 186, 576 pp., hardbound, 2009, ISBN 978-0-87590-476-4.

Betts, A. K. (2009), Land-surface-atmosphere coupling in observations and models. J. Adv. Model Earth Syst., Vol. 1, Art. #4, 18 pp., doi: 10.3894/JAMES.2009.1.4 [Published Online 1 Jul. '09] http://james.agu.org/index.php/JAMES/article/view/v1n4/JAMES.2009.1.4

Betts, A. K. (2008), Land-surface-atmosphere coupling in observations and models. ECMWF Semina on 'The parametrization of sub-grid processes and their interaction with the dynamics', Sept. 1-4, 2008. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/seminar/2008/Betts.pdf

Luo, Y., E. H. Berbery, K. E. Mitchell and A. K. Betts (2007), Relationships between land surface and near-surface atmospheric variables in the NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis. J. Hydrometeorol. 8, 1184-1203.

Betts, A. K. (2006), Radiative scaling of the nocturnal boundary layer and the diurnal temperature range, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D07105, doi:10.1029/2005JD006560.

Betts, A.K., J. Ball, A. Barr, T. A. Black, J. H. McCaughey and P. Viterbo, (2006), Assessing land-surface-atmosphere coupling in the ERA-40 reanalysis with boreal forest data. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 140, 355-382, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.08.009. Also available as http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/era40/ERA40PRS26_rev1.pdf

Strong, C., J. D. Fuentes, M. Garstang and A. K. Betts, (2005): Daytime Cycle of Low-Level Clouds and the Tropical Convective Boundary Layer in Southwestern Amazonia. J. Appl. Meteor., 44, 1607-1619.

Helliker, B. R., J. A. Berry, P. S. Bakwin, A.K. Betts, K. J. Davis, A. S. Denning, J. R. Ehleringer, M. P. Butler and D. M. Ricciuto (2005), Regional-scale estimates of forest CO2 and isotope flux based on monthly CO2 budgets of the atmospheric boundary layer. Chapter 5 in “The Carbon Balance of Forest Biomes”. Eds. H. Griffiths and P.G. Jarvis, Published by Taylor & Francis US, 2005, ISBN 1859962149, 9781859962145, 356 pages.

Helliker, B. R., J. A. Berry, A. K. Betts, P. S. Bakwin, K. J. Davis, A. S. Denning, J. R. Ehleringer, J. B. Miller, M. P. Butler, and D. M. Ricciuto (2004), Estimates of net CO2 flux by application of equilibrium boundary layer concepts to CO2 and water vapor measurements from a tall tower, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D20106, doi:10.1029/2004JD004532.

Betts, A. K., B. Helliker and J. Berry, (2004), Coupling between CO2, water vapor, temperature and radon and their fluxes in an idealized equilibrium boundary layer over land. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D18103, doi:10.1029/2003JD004420.

Betts, A. K., (2004): Understanding Hydrometeorology using global models. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 85, 1673-1688.

Hall, F.G., A.K. Betts, S. Frolking, R. Brown, J. M. Chen, W. Chen, S. Halldin, D. P. Lettenmaier, and J. Schafer, (2004): The boreal climate. Chapter 7 in Vegetation, Water, Humans and the Climate: a New Perspective on an Interactive System, A Synthesis of the IGBP Core Project, Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle, Eds, Kabat et al., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp. 93-114. ISSN 1619-2435, ISBN 3-540-42400-8.

Berbery, E. H., Y. Luo, K. E. Mitchell and A. K. Betts, (2003), Eta model-estimated land surface processes and the hydrologic cycle of the Mississippi Basin , J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D16), 8852, doi:10.1029/2002JD003192.

Betts, A.K., (2003): Diurnal Cycle. Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, J. R. Holton J. Pyle and J. A. Curry, Eds., Academic Press, London, pp. 640-643. ISBN 0-12-227090-8

Betts, A. K., J. Fuentes, M. Garstang, and J. H. Ball, (2002): Surface diurnal cycle and Boundary Layer structure over Rondonia during the rainy season, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8065, doi:10.1029/2001JD000356.

Betts, A. K., L.V. Gatti, A.M. Cordova, M. A. F. Silva Dias, and J. Fuentes, (2002): Transport of ozone to the surface by convective downdrafts at night. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8046, doi:10.1029/2000JD000158.

Betts, A. K., J. H. Ball, and J. Fuentes, (2002), Calibration and correction of LBA/TRMM Abracos pasture site merged dataset. [LBABettsDatadoc.pdf] Data set and documents available at ftp://daac.ornl.gov/data/lba/physical_climate/Betts

Betts, A. K., J. H. Ball, and J. H. McCaughey, (2001): Near-surface climate in the boreal forest. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 33529-33542, doi:10.1029/2001JD900047.

Betts, A. K., (2001): The diurnal cycle over land. ECMWF Semina, Sept. 3-7, 14pp http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/seminar/2001/sem01betts.pdf

Betts, A. K., 2000: Idealized model for equilibrium boundary layer over land. J. Hydrometeorol., 1, 507-523.


Betts, A.K., P. Viterbo, A.C.M. Beljaars and B. Van den Hurk, 1999: Use of field data to diagnose land-surface interaction. Proc. ECMWF Semina on Diagnosis of Models and Data Assimilation systems. Sept. 6-10, 1999, Reading, United Kingdom, 347-364. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/seminar/1999/sem1999betts.pdf

Viterbo, P. and A.K. Betts, 1999: The impact of the ECMWF reanalysis soil water on forecasts of the July 1993 Mississippi Flood. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 19361-19366.

Betts, A. K., M. L. Goulden, and S.C. Wofsy, 1999: Controls on evaporation in a boreal spruce forest. J. Climate, 12, 1601-1618.

Betts, A. K., 1998: Evaluating the land-surface component of NWP models using field experiment data, specifically BOREAS. ECMWF/WCRP/GEWEX Workshop, 29 June - 2 July 1998. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/workshop/1998/Modelling/wsmodelling_betts.pdf

Betts, A. K., 1998: Climate-Convection feedbacks: some further issues. Climatic Change. 39, 35-38. DOI 10.1023/A:1005323805826.

Betts, A. K., 1998: Surface diurnal cycle over Venezuela. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 67, 213-216. (Herbert Riehl Memorial Vol.).

Barr, A.G. and A.K. Betts, 1997: Radiosonde Boundary-layer budgets above a Boreal forest. J. Geophys. Res, 102, 29205-29212.

MacPherson, J. I. and A. K. Betts, 1997: Aircraft encounters with strong coherent vortices over the boreal forest. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 29231-29234.

Barr, A.G. A.K. Betts, R. Desjardins and J. I. MacPherson, 1997: Comparison of regional surface fluxes from boundary-layer budgets and aircraft measurements above boreal forest. J. Geophys. Res, 102, 29213-29218.

Betts, A.K., F.Chen, K. Mitchell, and Z.Janjic, 1997: Assessment of land-surface and boundary layer models in 2 operational versions of the Eta Model using FIFE data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 2896-2915.

Betts, A.K., 1997: Trade Cumulus: Observations and Modeling. Chapter 4 (pp 99-126) in The Physics and Parameterization of Moist Atmospheric Convection, Ed. R. K. Smith, NATO ASI Series C: Vol. 505, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 498pp.

Betts, A.K. and A.G. Barr, 1996: FIFE 1987 Sonde Budget revisited. J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23285-23288.

Betts, A.K., S-Y. Hong and H-L. Pan, 1996: Comparison of NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis with 1987 FIFE data. Mon. Wea.Rev., 124, 1480-1498.

Betts, A. K., J.H. Ball, A.C.M. Beljaars, M.J. Miller and P. Viterbo, 1996: The land-surface-atmosphere interaction: a review based on observational and global modeling perspectives. J. Geophys. Res. 101, 7209-7225.

Betts, A.K. and J.H. Ball, 1995: The FIFE surface diurnal cycle climate. J. Geophys. Res. 100, 25679-25693.

Betts A.K., Bretherton, C., and E. Klinker, 1995: Relation between mean boundary layer structure and cloudiness at the R/V Valdivia during ASTEX. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 2752-2762.

Bretherton, C., E. Klinker, A.K. Betts, and J.A. Coakley, 1995: Comparison of ceilometer, satellite and synoptic measurements of boundary layer cloudiness and the ECMWF diagnostic cloud parameterization scheme during ASTEX. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 2736-2751.

Betts, A. K., 1995: A lagged mixing parameterization for the dry convective boundary layer. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 1912-1915.

Barr, A. G. And A. K. Betts, 1994: Preliminary Summary of the BOREAS upper air soundings, Candle Lake and Thompson 1994 Intensive Field Campaigns. Available from AES, NHRC, 11 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon, SK S7N 3H5, Canada.

Betts, A. K., 1994: Relation between equilibrium evaporation and the saturation pressure budget. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 71, 235-245.

Betts, A.K. and J.H. Ball, 1994: Budget analysis of FIFE-1987 sonde data. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 3655-3666.

Betts, A.K. and A. Beljaars, 1993: Estimation of effective roughness length for heat and momentum from FIFE data. Atmos. Res. 30, 251-261.

Betts, A.K., 1993: Mixing line parameterizations for cloudy boundary layers. ECMWF/GCSS Workshop on the parameterization of cloud topped BL's, June 8-11, 1993. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/workshop/1993/Parametrization/betts.pdf

Betts, A.K., R.L. Desjardins, and J.I. MacPherson, 1992: Budget analysis of the Boundary Layer grid flights during FIFE-1987. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 18533-18546.

Betts, A.K., 1992: FIFE Atmospheric Boundary Layer Budget Methods. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 18523-18532.

Beljaars, A. C. M. and A. K. Betts, 1992: Validation of the boundary layer representation in the ECMWF model. ECMWF Semina proceedings, 7-11 Sept. 1992, Validation of models over Europe, Vol II, 159-195. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/seminar/1992/validation2beljaars.pdf

Betts A.K., P. Minnis, W. Ridgway, and D. F. Young, 1992: Integration of satellite and surface data using an equilibrium radiative-convective boundary layer model. J. Appl. Meteor., 31, 340-350.

Betts, A. K., and W. Ridgway, 1992: Tropical boundary layer equilibrium in the last Ice Age. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 2529-2534.

Sui, C-H., K-M. Lau and A. K. Betts, 1991: An Equilibrium Model for the coupled ocean-atmosphere Boundary Layer in the tropics. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 3151-3163.

Betts, A.K., and J. Bartlo, 1991: The density temperature and the dry and wet virtual adiabats. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119, 169-175.

Betts, A. K., 1990: Convective boundary layer equilibrium over a tropical ocean. Indo-US Seminar, 6-10 Aug. 1990. Published in "Physical Processes in Atmospheric Models", (Eds. D.R.Sikka and S.S.Sikka), Wiley Eastern Ltd., India, 32-59.

Betts, A.K., and R. Boers, 1990: A cloudiness transition in a marine boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 1480-1497.

Betts, A.K., 1990: Diurnal variation of California coastal stratocumulus from two days of boundary layer soundings. Tellus, 41A, 302-304.

Betts, A.K., R.L. Desjardins, J.I. MacPherson, and R.D. Kelly, 1990: Boundary Layer Heat and Moisture Budgets from FIFE. Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 50, 109-137.

Grossman R.L. and A.K. Betts, 1990: Air-sea interaction during an extreme cold air outbreak from the eastern coast of the United States. Mon. Wea. Rev. 118, 324-342.


Betts, A.K. and W. L. Ridgway, 1989: Climatic equilibrium of the atmospheric convective boundary layer over a tropical ocean. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 2621-2641.

Betts, A. K., 1989: Mean inversion strength of the convective boundary layer over the oceans. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 115, 997-998.

Betts, A. K., 1989: Idealized stratocumulus models and cloud layer thickness. Tellus, 41A, 246-254. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0870.1989.tb00379.x

Boers, R., and A. K. Betts, 1988: Saturation point structure of marine stratocumulus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci. 45, 1156-1175.

Betts, A. K. and W. Ridgway, 1988: Coupling of the radiative, convective and surface fluxes over the equatorial Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 522-536.

Betts, A. K., and J. Simpson, 1987: Thermodynamic budget diagrams for the hurricane subcloud layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 842-849.

Betts, A. K., and B. A. Albrecht, 1987: Conserved variable analysis of boundary layer thermodynamic structure over the tropical oceans. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 83-99.

Betts, A. K., 1985: Mixing line analysis of clouds and cloudy boundary layers. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 2751 2763.

Betts, A. K., 1985: Vector representation of Trade cumulus thermodynamic fluxes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113, 2173 2175.

Betts, A. K. and M. J. Miller, 1985: A new convective adjustment scheme. ECMWF Tech. Rep. No. 43. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/tr/tr43.pdf

Betts, A K, 1985: A new convective adjustment scheme. NAS-NRC Proceedings of the First National Workshop on the Global Weather Experiment, Vol. 2, Pt. 2 p 706-724 (SEE N86-24142 14-47); UNITED STATES.

Betts, A. K., 1984: Boundary layer thermodynamics of a High Plains severe storm. Mon. Wea.Rev., 112, 2199 2211.

Betts, A. K., 1983: Atmospheric convective structure and a convection scheme based on saturation point methods. ECMWF Workshop on “Convection in large-scale numerical models” 28 Nov.-1 Dec, 1983, Reading U. K., pp.69-94. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/workshop/1983/Convection/betts.pdf

Betts, A. K., 1983: Thermodynamics of mixed stratocumulus layers: saturation point budgets. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 2655-2670.

Betts, A. K., 1982: Saturation Point Analysis of Moist Convective Overturning. J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 1484 1505.


Betts, A. K., and M. F. Silva Dias, 1979: Unsaturated Downdraft Thermodynamics in Cumulonimbus. J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 1061-1071.

Albrecht, B., A.K. Betts, W. Schubert, and S.K. Cox, 1979: Model of the Thermodynamic Structure of the Trade-Wind Boundary Layer: Part I. Theoretical Formulation and Sensitivity Tests J. Atmos.Sci., 36, 73-89.

Miller, M. J., and A. K. Betts, 1977: Traveling Convective Storms over Venezuela. Mon. Wea. Rev., 105, pp. 833-848.

Betts, A. K., 1977: Comments on 'Budget Studies of Heat Flux Profiles in the Convective Boundary Layer over Land'. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 103, pp. 216-217.

Betts, A. K., 1976: Modeling Subcloud Layer Structure and Interaction with Shallow Cumulus Layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, pp. 2363-2382.

Betts, A. K., 1976: The Thermodynamic Transformation of the Tropical Subcloud Layer by Precipitation and Downdrafts. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, pp. 1008-1020.

Betts, A. K., K. Fraedrich, M. Miller, M. Moncrieff, R. Pearce and P. Rowntree, 1976: Parameterization of Shallow and Deep Convection. Section 3 of Report of Study Conference on the Development of Numerical Models for the Tropics. Exeter, 4-10 April, 1976, GARP Report No. 13, WMO, C.P. No.5, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland.

Betts, A. K., R. W. Grover and M. W. Moncrieff, 1976: Structure and Motion of Tropical Squall Lines over Venezuela. Q.J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 102, pp. 395-404.

Betts, A. K., 1975: Parametric Interpretation of Trade-Wind Cumulus Budget Studies. J. Atmos. Sci., 32, 1934-1945.

Betts, A. K., 1975: Review of Analytical Methods in Planetary Boundary Layer Modelling" by R.A. Brown. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 56, pp. 478-479.

Garstang, M., and A. K. Betts, 1974: A Review of the Tropical Boundary Layer and Cumulus Convection: Structure, Parameterization, and Modelling. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 55, pp. 1195-1205.

Betts, A. K., F. J. Dugan and R. W. Grover, 1974: Residual Errors of the VIZ Radio¬sonde Hygristor as Deduced from Observations of Subcloud Layer Structure. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 55, pp. 1123-1125.

Betts, A. K., 1974: Reply to comments on "Non-Precipitating Cumulus Convection and its Parameterization." Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 100, pp. 469-471.

Moore, D.A. and A. K. Betts, 1974: Diagnostic Tests of Models for the Thermal Structure of the Non-precipitating Convective Boundary Layer. Atmos. Sci. Paper No. 217, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO 80521. 70pp

Betts, A. K., 1973: A Composite Mesoscale Cumulonimbus Budget. J. Atmos. Sci., 30, pp. 597-610.

Betts, A. K., 1973: Non-Precipitating Convection and Its Parameterization. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 99, 178-196.

Riehl, H., and A. K. Betts, 1972: Humidity Observations with the 1972 U.S. Radiosonde Instrument. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 53, pp. 887-888

Betts, A. K. (1970): Cumulus Convection. Ph.D. Thesis, University of London, 151 pp. Available from http://alanbetts.com/research/paper/cumulus-convection/#abstract

Recent Research Talks

Selected research talks (pdfs)