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Research Papers and Talks by Dr. Alan K. Betts

Reverse chronological order. First paper is brief overview.

Papers published by the American Meteorological Society are subject to AMS copyright. View published open abstracts at http://dx.doi.org. Copyrighted papers may not be reproduced without explicit permission from the publisher.

Research datasets for download - completed:

VIMHEX 1972 data ; FIFE surface DATA

ERA-40 Monthly river basin DATA: 1958-1978; 1979-2002

ECMWF Modeled Precipitation and Surface Flux, Hourly precipitation observations, Rondonia, Brazil: 1999

LBA 1999 Rondonia pasture data archive


Betts, A. K. (2017). A brief overview of my research by decade.

Betts, A.K., A.B. Tawfik and R.L. Desjardins (2017): Revisiting Hydrometeorology using cloud and climate observations. J. Hydrometeor., 18, 939-955, http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-16-0203.1

Galford, G.L., Nash, J., Betts, A.K. et al. (2016). Bridging the climate information gap: a framework for engaging knowledge brokers and decision makers in state climate assessments. Climatic Change, 138, 383-395, doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1756-4

Betts A.K. and A.B. Tawfik (2016), Corrigendum: Annual Climatology of the Diurnal Cycle on the Canadian Prairies. Front. Earth Sci. 4:53. doi: 10.3389/feart.2016.00053

Betts, A. K., R. Desjardins and D. Worth (2016). The Impact of Clouds, Land use and Snow Cover on Climate in the Canadian Prairies. Adv. Sci. Res., 13, 37-42, doi:10.5194/asr-13-37-2016

Betts, A.K., J. Hamilton, S. Ligon and A.M. Mahar (2016), Integrating solar energy and climate research into science education. Earth’s Future, 4, 2-13, doi:10.1002/2015EF000315.

“Land-Atmosphere Interactions” Alpine Summer School, Lecture 1 "Review" by Alan Betts (2015).

"Land-Atmosphere Interactions" Alpine Summer School, Lecture 2: "Canadian Prairies" by Alan Betts (2015).

Betts, A.K., R. Desjardins, A.C.M. Beljaars and A. Tawfik (2015). Observational study of land-surface-cloud-atmosphere coupling on daily timescales. Front. Earth Sci. 3:13. doi: 10.3389/feart.2015.00013

Guilbert, J., A. K. Betts, D. M. Rizzo, B. Beckage and A. Bomblies (2015). Characterization of increased persistence and intensity of precipitation in the Northeastern United States. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 1888–1893, doi:10.1002/2014GL062816

Betts, A.K., R. Desjardins, D. Worth and B. Beckage (2014), Climate coupling between temperature, humidity, precipitation and cloud cover over the Canadian Prairies. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 13305-13326, doi:10.1002/2014JD022511.

Betts, A.K., R. Desjardins, D. Worth, S. Wang and J. Li (2014), Coupling of winter climate transitions to snow and clouds over the Prairies. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 1118-1139, doi:10.1002/2013JD021168.

Betts, A.K., R. Desjardins, D. Worth and D. Cerkowniak (2013), Impact of land use change on the diurnal cycle climate of the Canadian Prairies, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 11,996–12,011, doi:10.1002/2013JD020717.

Betts, A.K., R. Desjardins and D. Worth (2013), Cloud Radiative Forcing of the Diurnal Cycle Climate of the Canadian Prairies. J. Geophys. Res. 118, 8935–8953, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50593.

Betts, A.K. and E. Gibson (2012), Environmental journalism revisited. Ch. 41, pp. 382-390, in Environmental Leadership: a Reference Handbook. Deborah R. Gallagher, Editor, SAGE publications Inc., Sept. 2012, ISBN: 9781412981507.

Wu, W., Y. Liu and A.K. Betts (2012), Observational based evaluation of NWP reanalyses in modeling cloud properties over the Southern Great Plains. J. Geophys. Res. 117, D12202, doi:10.1029/2011JD016971

Betts, A. K. (2012), Climate change: Taking a Local Perspective to the Global Level. Earthzine. http://www.earthzine.org/2012/02/27/climate-change-taking-a-local-perspective-to-the-global-level/

Betts, A. K. (2011), Seasonal Climate Transitions in New England. Weather, 66, 245-248 (September). doi: 10.1002/wea.754

Betts, A. K. (2011), Book review: “Climate Change Policy in the European Union: Confronting the Dilemmas of Mitigation and Adaptation?” Edited by: Andrew Jordan, Dave Huitema, Harro van Asselt, Tim Rayner and Frans Berkhout 2010; xx + 284pp; ISBN 978-0-521-19612-3. EOS Trans. AGU, 92 (33), P.277, doi:10.1029/2011EO330006 (16 August, 2011).

Betts, A.K. (2011), Climate Change in Vermont. Atmospheric Research Report, prepared for Agency of Natural Resources, State of Vermont.


Betts, A. K. (2011), Communicating Climate Science. EOS Trans. AGU, 92 (24), P.203, doi:10.1029/2011EO240004. (14 June 2011)

Zhou, Y. P., K. Xu, Y. C. Sud, and A. K. Betts (2011), Recent trends of the tropical hydrological cycle inferred from Global Precipitation Climatology Project and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D09101, doi:10.1029/2010JD015197.

Betts, A.K. (2011): Vermont Climate Change Indicators. Weather, Climate and Society, 3, 106-115, doi: 10.1175/2011WCAS1096.1

Jiménez, C., C. Prigent, B. Mueller, S. I. Seneviratne, M. F. McCabe, E.F. Wood, W. B. Rossow, G. Balsamo, A. K. Betts, P. A. Dirmeyer, J. B. Fisher, M. Jung, M. Kanamitsu, R. H. Reichle, M. Reichstein, M. Rodell, J. Sheffield, K. Tu and K. Wang (2011), Global inter-comparison of 12 land surface heat flux estimates. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D02102, doi:10.1029/2010JD014545.

Betts, A. K. and M. A. F. Silva Dias (2010), Progress in understanding land-surface-atmosphere coupling over the Amazon: a review. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 2(6), 20 pp., doi:10.3894/JAMES.2010.2.6. [Published Online 30 Jun. '10] http://james.agu.org/index.php/JAMES/article/view/v2n6/JAMES.2010.2.6


Betts, A. K. (2009), Land-surface-atmosphere coupling in observations and models. J. Adv. Model Earth Syst., Vol. 1, Art. #4, 18 pp., doi: 10.3894/JAMES.2009.1.4 [Published Online 1 Jul. '09] http://james.agu.org/index.php/JAMES/article/view/v1n4/JAMES.2009.1.4

Wang, J., F. J. F. Chagnon, E. Williams, A. K. Betts, N. O. Renno, L. A. T. Machado, G. Bisht, R. Knox and R. L. Bras (2009), Impact of deforestation in the Amazon basin on cloud climatology. PNAS, 106, 3670-3674. doi:10.1073/pnas.0810156106 http://www.pnas.org/content/106/10/3670.full.pdf+html

Betts, A. K. (2009), Vermont experience. Session 53, Role of Media in Dealing with Climate Change, International Scientific Congress on Climate Change: Copenhagen, March 10-12, 2009

Betts, A. K., R. Desjardins and D. Worth (2007): Impact of agriculture, forest and cloud feedback on the surface energy balance in BOREAS. Agric. Forest Meteorol., 142, 156-169, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.08.020 [Special book issue, “The Contribution of Agriculture to the State of Climate” Eds., R.L. Desjardins, M.V.K. Sivakumar, C. de Kimpe, ISSN 0168-1923, Elsevier, 2007]

Hall, F. G., E. Brown de Colstoun, G. J. Collatz, D. Landis, P. Dirmeyer, A. Betts, G. J. Huffman, L. Bounoua, and B. Meeson (2006), ISLSCP Initiative II global data sets: Surface boundary conditions and atmospheric forcings for land atmosphere studies, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D22S01, doi:10.1029/2006JD007366.

Beljaars, A., G. Balsamo, A. Betts and P. Viterbo (2006): Atmosphere/surface interactions in the ECMWF model at high latitudes, ECMWF Seminar on Polar Meteorology, 4-8 September 2006. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/do/references/list/200609

Betts, A.K., M. Zhao, P. A. Dirmeyer and A.C.M. Beljaars (2006), Comparison of ERA40 and NCEP/DOE near-surface datasets with other ISLSCP-II datasets. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D22S04, doi:10.1029/2006JD007174.

Betts, A. K, J.H., Ball, P. Viterbo, A. Dai and J. A. Marengo, (2005): Hydrometeorology of the Amazon in ERA-40. J. Hydrometeorology. 6, 764-774. ERA-40 Project Report 22. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/era40/ERA40PRS22.pdf

Betts, A. K and P. Viterbo, (2005): Land-surface, boundary layer and cloud-field coupling over the south-western Amazon in ERA-40. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D14108, doi:10.1029/2004JD005702. ERA-40 Project Report 25 (in color) http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/era40/ERA40PRS25.pdf

Helliker, B. R., J. A. Berry, P. S. Bakwin, A.K. Betts, K. J. Davis, A. S. Denning, J. R. Ehleringer, M. P. Butler and D. M. Ricciuto (2005), Regional-scale estimates of forest CO2 and isotope flux based on monthly CO2 budgets of the atmospheric boundary layer. Chapter 5 in “The Carbon Balance of Forest Biomes”. Eds. H. Griffiths and P.G. Jarvis, Published by Taylor & Francis US, 2005, ISBN 1859962149, 9781859962145, 356 pages.

Helliker, B. R., J. A. Berry, A. K. Betts, P. S. Bakwin, K. J. Davis, A. S. Denning, J. R. Ehleringer, J. B. Miller, M. P. Butler, and D. M. Ricciuto (2004), Estimates of net CO2 flux by application of equilibrium boundary layer concepts to CO2 and water vapor measurements from a tall tower, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D20106, doi:10.1029/2004JD004532.

Betts, A. K., B. Helliker and J. Berry, (2004), Coupling between CO2, water vapor, temperature and radon and their fluxes in an idealized equilibrium boundary layer over land. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D18103, doi:10.1029/2003JD004420.

Betts, A. K., (2004): Understanding Hydrometeorology using global models. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 85, 1673-1688.

Hall, F.G., A.K. Betts, S. Frolking, R. Brown, J. M. Chen, W. Chen, S. Halldin, D. P. Lettenmaier, and J. Schafer, (2004): The boreal climate. Chapter 7 in Vegetation, Water, Humans and the Climate: a New Perspective on an Interactive System, A Synthesis of the IGBP Core Project, Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle, Eds, Kabat et al., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp. 93-114. ISSN 1619-2435, ISBN 3-540-42400-8.

Betts, A. K., J. H. Ball and P. Viterbo, (2003): Evaluation of the ERA-40 surface water budget and surface temperature for the Mackenzie River basin. J. Hydrometeorology, 4, 1194-1211. Also available in color as ERA-40 Project report series No. 6 from ECMWF, Reading RG2 9AX, UK. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/ERA40/ERA40PRS_6.pdf

Berbery, E. H., Y. Luo, K. E. Mitchell and A. K. Betts, (2003), Eta model-estimated land surface processes and the hydrologic cycle of the Mississippi Basin , J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D16), 8852, doi:10.1029/2002JD003192.

Betts, A.K., and A.C.M. Beljaars, (2003): ECMWF ISLSCP-II near-surface dataset from ERA-40. ERA-40 Project report series No. 8 from ECMWF, Reading RG2 9AX, UK. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/do/references/show?id=85944

Betts, A. K., J. H. Ball, M, Bosilovich, P. Viterbo, Y.-C. Zhang, and W. B. Rossow, (2003): Intercomparison of Water and Energy Budgets for five Mississippi Sub-basins between ECMWF Reanalysis (ERA-40) and NASA-DAO fvGCM for 1990-1999. J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D16), 8618, doi:10.1029/2002JD003127. GCIP-3 issue. Also available in color as ERA-40 Project report series No. 7 from ECMWF, Reading RG2 9AX, UK, http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/ERA40/ERA40PRS_7.pdf

Betts, A.K., (2003): Diurnal Cycle. Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, J. R. Holton J. Pyle and J. A. Curry, Eds., Academic Press, London, pp. 640-643. ISBN 0-12-227090-8

Betts, A. K. and C. Jakob, (2002), Study of diurnal cycle of convective precipitation over Amazonia using a single column model. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4732, doi:10.1029/2002JD002264.

Williams, E. and 32 Co-authors, (2002): Contrasting Convective Regimes Over the Amazon: Implications for Cloud Electrification, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8082, doi:10.1029/2001JD000380

Betts, A. K., P. Viterbo, A.C.M. Beljaars and B.J.J.M. van den Hurk, (2001): Impact of BOREAS on the ECMWF Forecast Model. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 33593-33604.

Barr, A. G., A K. Betts, T.A. Black , J.H. McCaughey and C.S. Smith (2001): Intercomparison of BOREAS Northern and Southern Study Area Surface Fluxes in 1994. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 33543-33550.

Betts, A. K., J. H. Ball, and J. H. McCaughey, (2001): Near-surface climate in the boreal forest. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 33529-33542, doi:10.1029/2001JD900047.

Betts, A. K., 2000: Idealized model for equilibrium boundary layer over land. J. Hydrometeorol., 1, 507-523.


Herring, D., (1999), Should we talk about the weather? Improving global forecasts with BOREAS research. NASA Earth Observatory Feature Article, Boreal ecosystem series, 3. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/BOREASAlbedo

(Plain English review of Alan Betts research)

Viterbo, P. and A.K. Betts, 1999: The impact on ECMWF forecasts of changes to the albedo of the boreal forests in the presence of snow. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 27803-27810.

Betts, A. K., 1998: Climate-Convection feedbacks: some further issues. Climatic Change. 39, 35-38. DOI 10.1023/A:1005323805826.

Betts A. K. and J. H. Ball, 1997: Albedo over the boreal forest. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 28901-28910.

Betts, A. K., J.H. Ball, A.C.M. Beljaars, M.J. Miller and P. Viterbo, 1996: The land-surface-atmosphere interaction: a review based on observational and global modeling perspectives. J. Geophys. Res. 101, 7209-7225.

Betts, A.K. and J.H. Ball, 1995: The FIFE surface diurnal cycle climate. J. Geophys. Res. 100, 25679-25693.

Slingo, J., M. Blackburn, A. Betts, R. Brugge, B. Hoskins, M. Miller, L.Steenman-Clark, and J. Thuburn, 1994: Mean Climate and Transience in the Tropics of the UGAMP GCM. Part I: Sensitivity to Convective parametrization. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 120, 861-880.

Browning, K. A., A.K. Betts, P. R. Jonas, R. Kershaw, M. Manton, P. J. Mason, M. Miller, M. W. Moncrieff, H. Sundqvist, W. K. Tao, M. Tiedtke, P. V. Hobbs, J. Mitchell, E. Raschke, R. E. Stewart, and J. Simpson, 1993: The GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 74, 387B399.

Betts, A.K., 1992: FIFE Atmospheric Boundary Layer Budget Methods. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 18523-18532.

Betts, A. K., and W. Ridgway, 1992: Tropical boundary layer equilibrium in the last Ice Age. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 2529-2534.

Betts, A.K., 1991: "The Role of Clouds in Climate Change", prepared statement and discussion before the Hearing of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, on "Global Change Research: Water Vapor and the Climate System", October 7, 1991. US Govt. Printing Office, ISBN 0-16-038431-1. AKB statement, P33-37, and discussion P56-92. Web trace: http://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/656547

Betts, A. K., 1990: Greenhouse warming and the tropical water budget. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 71, 1464-1465.

Betts, A. K., 1990: Convective boundary layer equilibrium over a tropical ocean. Indo-US Seminar, 6-10 Aug. 1990. Published in "Physical Processes in Atmospheric Models", (Eds. D.R.Sikka and S.S.Sikka), Wiley Eastern Ltd., India, 32-59.

Grossman R.L. and A.K. Betts, 1990: Air-sea interaction during an extreme cold air outbreak from the eastern coast of the United States. Mon. Wea. Rev. 118, 324-342.


Betts, A.K. and W. L. Ridgway, 1989: Climatic equilibrium of the atmospheric convective boundary layer over a tropical ocean. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 2621-2641.

Boers, R., and A. K. Betts, 1988: Saturation point structure of marine stratocumulus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci. 45, 1156-1175.

Betts, A. K. and W. Ridgway, 1988: Coupling of the radiative, convective and surface fluxes over the equatorial Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 522-536.

Betts, A. K., and Harshvardhan, 1987: Thermodynamic constraint on the cloud liquid water feedback in climate models. J. Geophys. Res., 92, 8483-8485.

Betts, A. K., and B. A. Albrecht, 1987: Conserved variable analysis of boundary layer thermodynamic structure over the tropical oceans. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 83-99.

Recent Research Talks

Selected research talks (pdfs)