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Research Papers and Talks by Dr. Alan K. Betts

Reverse chronological order. First paper is brief overview.

Papers published by the American Meteorological Society are subject to AMS copyright. View published open abstracts at http://dx.doi.org. Copyrighted papers may not be reproduced without explicit permission from the publisher.

Research datasets for download - completed:

VIMHEX 1972 data ; FIFE surface DATA

ERA-40 Monthly river basin DATA: 1958-1978; 1979-2002

ECMWF Modeled Precipitation and Surface Flux, Hourly precipitation observations, Rondonia, Brazil: 1999

LBA 1999 Rondonia pasture data archive


Betts, A. K. (2017). A brief overview of my research by decade.

D'Andrea, F., P. Gentine, A.K. Betts and B.R. Lintner (2014), Triggering Deep Convection with a Probabilistic Plume Model. J. Atmos. Sci., 71, 3881-3901. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-13-0340.1

Gentine, P., A.K. Betts, B.R. Lintner, K.L. Findell, A. Tzella and F. D’Andrea (2013), A probabilistic-bulk model of mixed layer and convection: 1) Clear-sky case. J. Atmos. Sci. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-12-0145.1

Gentine, P., A.K. Betts, B.R. Lintner, K.L. Findell, C.C. van Heerwaarden and F. D’Andrea (2013), A probabilistic-bulk model of coupled mixed layer and convection: 2) Shallow convection case. J. Atmos. Sci. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-12-0146.1

Betts, A. K. and M. A. F. Silva Dias (2010), Progress in understanding land-surface-atmosphere coupling over the Amazon: a review. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 2(6), 20 pp., doi:10.3894/JAMES.2010.2.6. [Published Online 30 Jun. '10] http://james.agu.org/index.php/JAMES/article/view/v2n6/JAMES.2010.2.6


Wang, J., F. J. F. Chagnon, E. Williams, A. K. Betts, N. O. Renno, L. A. T. Machado, G. Bisht, R. Knox and R. L. Bras (2009), Impact of deforestation in the Amazon basin on cloud climatology. PNAS, 106, 3670-3674. doi:10.1073/pnas.0810156106 http://www.pnas.org/content/106/10/3670.full.pdf+html

Betts, A. K and P. Viterbo, (2005): Land-surface, boundary layer and cloud-field coupling over the south-western Amazon in ERA-40. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D14108, doi:10.1029/2004JD005702. ERA-40 Project Report 25 (in color) http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/era40/ERA40PRS25.pdf

Bechtold, P., J.-P. Chaboureau, A. Beljaars, A. K. Betts , M. Miller, M. Köhler, M. Miller and J.-L. Redelsperger, (2004): The simulation of the diurnal cycle of convective precipitation over land in a global model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 3119-3137.

Betts, A. K. and C. Jakob, (2002), Study of diurnal cycle of convective precipitation over Amazonia using a single column model. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4732, doi:10.1029/2002JD002264.

Williams, E. and 32 Co-authors, (2002): Contrasting Convective Regimes Over the Amazon: Implications for Cloud Electrification, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8082, doi:10.1029/2001JD000380

Silva Dias, M. A. F., W. Petersen, P.L. Silva Dias, R. Cifelli, A.K. Betts, M. Longo, A.M. Gomes, G.F. Fisch, M.A. Antonio, and R.I. Albrecht, (2002): A case study of convective organization into precipitating lines in the Southwest Amazon during the WETAMC AND TRMM-LBA. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8078, doi:10.1029/2001JD000375.

Betts, A. K., J. Fuentes, M. Garstang, and J. H. Ball, (2002): Surface diurnal cycle and Boundary Layer structure over Rondonia during the rainy season, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8065, doi:10.1029/2001JD000356.

Betts, A. K., L.V. Gatti, A.M. Cordova, M. A. F. Silva Dias, and J. Fuentes, (2002): Transport of ozone to the surface by convective downdrafts at night. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8046, doi:10.1029/2000JD000158.

Betts, A. K. and C. Jakob, (2002), Evaluation of the diurnal cycle of precipitation, surface thermodynamics and surface fluxes in the ECMWF model using LBA data. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8045, doi:10.1029/2001JD000427

Silva Dias, M.A., A..J. Dolman, S. Rutledge, E. Zipser, P. Silva Dias, G. Fisch, C. Nobre, P. Kabat, B. Ferrier, A. Betts, J. Halverson, M. Garstang, J. Fuentes, A. Manzi, H. Rocha, J.A. Marengo, C. Morales and N.J. Bink, 2000: Convective systems and surface processes in Amazonia during the WETAMC/LBA. BAHC News, 7, 3-7.


Viterbo, P. and A.K. Betts, 1999: The impact of the ECMWF reanalysis soil water on forecasts of the July 1993 Mississippi Flood. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 19361-19366.

Betts, A. K., 1998: Climate-Convection feedbacks: some further issues. Climatic Change. 39, 35-38. DOI 10.1023/A:1005323805826.

Betts, A.K.: 1997, The Parameterization of deep convection, Chapter 10 (pp 255-279) in The Physics and Parameterization of Moist Atmospheric Convection, Ed. R. K. Smith, NATO ASI Series C: Vol. 505, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 498pp.

Betts, A. K., 1996: The parameterization of deep convection: a review. ECMWF Workshop on “New insights and approaches to convective parameterization”, 4-7 Nov., 1996, Reading, U.K., pp 166-188. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/workshop/1996/New%20Insights/newinsights_betts.pdf

Betts, A. K., J.H. Ball, A.C.M. Beljaars, M.J. Miller and P. Viterbo, 1996: The land-surface-atmosphere interaction: a review based on observational and global modeling perspectives. J. Geophys. Res. 101, 7209-7225.

Beljaars, A.C.M., P. Viterbo, M.J. Miller and A.K. Betts, 1996: The anomalous rainfall over the United States during July 1993: sensitivity to land surface parameterization and soil moisture anomalies. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 362-383.

Emanuel, K., D. Raymond, A. Betts, L. Bosart, C. Bretherton, K. Droegemeier, B. Farrell, J.M. Fritsch, R. Houze, M. LeMone, D. Lilly, R. Rotunno, M. Shapiro, R. Smith, and A. Thorpe, 1995: Report of the First Prospectus Development Team of the U.S. Weather Research Program to NOAA and the NSF. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 76, 1194-1208.

Slingo, J., M. Blackburn, A. Betts, R. Brugge, B. Hoskins, M. Miller, L.Steenman-Clark, and J. Thuburn, 1994: Mean Climate and Transience in the Tropics of the UGAMP GCM. Part I: Sensitivity to Convective parametrization. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 120, 861-880.

Betts, A.K. and M.J. Miller, 1993. The Betts-Miller scheme. Chapter 9 in "The Representation of Cumulus Convection in Numerical Models of the Atmosphere". (Eds. K.A. Emanuel and D.J. Raymond.) Amer. Meteor. Soc., Meteor. Mon. 24, No 46, 107-121.

Browning, K. A., A.K. Betts, P. R. Jonas, R. Kershaw, M. Manton, P. J. Mason, M. Miller, M. W. Moncrieff, H. Sundqvist, W. K. Tao, M. Tiedtke, P. V. Hobbs, J. Mitchell, E. Raschke, R. E. Stewart, and J. Simpson, 1993: The GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 74, 387B399.

Betts, A. K., and W. Ridgway, 1992: Tropical boundary layer equilibrium in the last Ice Age. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 2529-2534.

Betts, A.K., 1991: "The Role of Clouds in Climate Change", prepared statement and discussion before the Hearing of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, on "Global Change Research: Water Vapor and the Climate System", October 7, 1991. US Govt. Printing Office, ISBN 0-16-038431-1. AKB statement, P33-37, and discussion P56-92. Web trace: http://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/656547

Betts, A.K., and J. Bartlo, 1991: The density temperature and the dry and wet virtual adiabats. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119, 169-175.

Zipser, E.J., A.K. Betts, F. Ruggiero, and B. Hinton, 1990: Tropical Meteorology: Panel Report, Radar in Meteorology, D. Atlas, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 426-432.

Betts, A. K., 1990: Convective boundary layer equilibrium over a tropical ocean. Indo-US Seminar, 6-10 Aug. 1990. Published in "Physical Processes in Atmospheric Models", (Eds. D.R.Sikka and S.S.Sikka), Wiley Eastern Ltd., India, 32-59.

Grossman R.L. and A.K. Betts, 1990: Air-sea interaction during an extreme cold air outbreak from the eastern coast of the United States. Mon. Wea. Rev. 118, 324-342.


Betts, A.K. and W. L. Ridgway, 1989: Climatic equilibrium of the atmospheric convective boundary layer over a tropical ocean. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 2621-2641.

Betts, A. K. and W. Ridgway, 1988: Coupling of the radiative, convective and surface fluxes over the equatorial Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 522-536.

Betts, A. K., and J. Simpson, 1987: Thermodynamic budget diagrams for the hurricane subcloud layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 842-849.

Heckley, W. A., M. J. Miller, and A. K. Betts, 1987: An example of hurricane tracking and forecasting with a global analysis/fore¬casting system. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 68, 226-229.

Betts, A. K., and B. A. Albrecht, 1987: Conserved variable analysis of boundary layer thermodynamic structure over the tropical oceans. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 83-99.

Betts, A. K., 1986: A new convective adjustment scheme. Part I: Observational and theoretical basis. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 112, 677 692.

Betts, A. K. and M. J. Miller, 1986: A new convective adjustment scheme. Part II: Single column tests using GATE wave, BOMEX, ATEX, and Arctic Airmass data sets. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 112, 693 -710.

Betts, A. K., 1985: Mixing line analysis of clouds and cloudy boundary layers. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 2751 2763.

Betts, A. K., 1985: Vector representation of Trade cumulus thermodynamic fluxes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113, 2173 2175.

Betts, A. K. and M. J. Miller, 1985: A new convective adjustment scheme. ECMWF Tech. Rep. No. 43. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/tr/tr43.pdf

Betts, A K, 1985: A new convective adjustment scheme. NAS-NRC Proceedings of the First National Workshop on the Global Weather Experiment, Vol. 2, Pt. 2 p 706-724 (SEE N86-24142 14-47); UNITED STATES.

Betts, A. K., 1984: Boundary layer thermodynamics of a High Plains severe storm. Mon. Wea.Rev., 112, 2199 2211.

Betts, A. K. and M. J. Miller, 1984: A new convective adjustment scheme, Pts. I and II. ECMWF technical Report No. 43, ECMWF, Reading, RG2 9AX, England, 68 pp.

Silva Dias, M. F., A. K. Betts, and D. E. Stevens, 1984: A linear spectral model of tropical mesoscale systems: sensitivity studies. J.Atmos. Sci., 41, 1704 ¬1716.

Betts, A. K., 1983: Atmospheric convective structure and a convection scheme based on saturation point methods. ECMWF Workshop on “Convection in large-scale numerical models” 28 Nov.-1 Dec, 1983, Reading U. K., pp.69-94. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/workshop/1983/Convection/betts.pdf

Betts, A. K., 1982: Cloud Thermodynamic Models in Saturation Point Coordinates. J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 2182- 2191.

Betts, A. K., 1982: Saturation Point Analysis of Moist Convective Overturning. J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 1484 1505.

Houze, R. A., and A. K.Betts, 1981: Convection in GATE. Rev. Geophys. and Space Phys., 19, 541-576.

Houze, R. A., and A. K. Betts, 1980: Clouds, Convection and Convective Models. WMO Monograph: Synthesis GATE Scientific Results, Kiev, 1980.


Betts, A. K., and M. F. Silva Dias, 1979: Unsaturated Downdraft Thermodynamics in Cumulonimbus. J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 1061-1071.

Mower, R. N., G. Austin, A. K. Betts, C. Gautier, R. Grossman, J. Kelley, F. Marks and D. Martin, 1979: A Case Study of GATE Convective Activity. Atmosphere-Ocean, 17, 46-59.

McNab, A. L., and A. K. Betts, 1978: A Mesoscale Budget Study of Cumulus Convection. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106, pp. 1317-1331.

Betts, A.K., 1978: Convection in the Tropics. RS/RMS/AMS/DMG Conf. on 'Meteorology over the Tropical Oceans". Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. Supplement, 105-132. Edited by D.B. Shaw, published by the Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 104 Oxford Road, Reading RG1 7LL, UK.

Betts, A. K., 1977: An assessment of progress towards achieving the central objectives of GATE. II: Cluster and cloud-scales. Report of the GATE Workshop, NCAR, Boulder, CO., July-August 1977.

Miller, M. J., and A. K. Betts, 1977: Traveling Convective Storms over Venezuela. Mon. Wea. Rev., 105, pp. 833-848.

Betts, A. K., 1977: Comments on 'Budget Studies of Heat Flux Profiles in the Convective Boundary Layer over Land'. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 103, pp. 216-217.

Betts, A. K., 1976: Modeling Subcloud Layer Structure and Interaction with Shallow Cumulus Layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, pp. 2363-2382.

Betts, A. K., 1976: The Thermodynamic Transformation of the Tropical Subcloud Layer by Precipitation and Downdrafts. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, pp. 1008-1020.

Betts, A. K., K. Fraedrich, M. Miller, M. Moncrieff, R. Pearce and P. Rowntree, 1976: Parameterization of Shallow and Deep Convection. Section 3 of Report of Study Conference on the Development of Numerical Models for the Tropics. Exeter, 4-10 April, 1976, GARP Report No. 13, WMO, C.P. No.5, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland.

Betts, A. K., R. W. Grover and M. W. Moncrieff, 1976: Structure and Motion of Tropical Squall Lines over Venezuela. Q.J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 102, pp. 395-404.

Betts, A. K., and D. R. Rodenhuis, 1975: Report on the Field Phase of the GATE Scientific Programme. Chapter 6, Convection Subprogramme. GATE Report No. 16, WMO-ICSU.

Betts, A. K., 1975: Parametric Interpretation of Trade-Wind Cumulus Budget Studies. J. Atmos. Sci., 32, 1934-1945.

Rodenhuis, D. R., and A. K. Betts, 1974: The Convection Subprogram for GATE, W.M.O. GATE Report No. 7.

Betts, A. K., 1974: Thermodynamic Classification of Tropical Convective Soundings. Mon. Wea. Rev., 102, pp.760-764.

Garstang, M., and A. K. Betts, 1974: A Review of the Tropical Boundary Layer and Cumulus Convection: Structure, Parameterization, and Modelling. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 55, pp. 1195-1205.

Betts, A. K., 1974: Further Comments on "A Comparison of the Equivalent Potential Temperature and the Static Energy". J. Atmos. Sci., 31, pp.1713-1715.

Betts, A. K., F. J. Dugan and R. W. Grover, 1974: Residual Errors of the VIZ Radio¬sonde Hygristor as Deduced from Observations of Subcloud Layer Structure. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 55, pp. 1123-1125.

Betts, A. K., 1974: Reply to comments on "Non-Precipitating Cumulus Convection and its Parameterization." Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 100, pp. 469-471.

Betts, A. K., 1974: The Scientific Basis and Objectives of the U.S. Convection Subprogram for the GATE. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 55, pp. 304-313.

Moore, D.A. and A. K. Betts, 1974: Diagnostic Tests of Models for the Thermal Structure of the Non-precipitating Convective Boundary Layer. Atmos. Sci. Paper No. 217, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO 80521. 70pp

Betts, A. K., 1973: A Relationship Between Stratification, Cloud-Depth and Permitted Cloud Radii. J. Appl. Meteor., 12, pp. 890-893.

Betts, A. K., 1973: Draft of the Convection Subprogram for the GATE. Prepared for the International Scientific Management Group for the GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment, 88 pp.

Betts, A. K., and F. J. Dugan, 1973: Empirical Formula for Saturation Pseudoadiabats and Equivalent Potential Temperature. J. Appl. Meteor., 12, pp. 731-732.

Betts, A. K., 1973: A Composite Mesoscale Cumulonimbus Budget. J. Atmos. Sci., 30, pp. 597-610.

Betts, A. K., 1973: Non-Precipitating Convection and Its Parameterization. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 99, 178-196.

Betts, A. K. (1970): Cumulus Convection. Ph.D. Thesis, University of London, 151 pp. Available from http://alanbetts.com/research/paper/cumulus-convection/#abstract

Recent Research Talks

Selected research talks (pdfs)