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Research Papers and Talks by Dr. Alan K. Betts

Reverse chronological order. The first paper is a brief overview. Discussion and comments on papers are welcome.

Papers published by the American Meteorological Society are subject to AMS copyright. View published open abstracts at http://dx.doi.org. Copyrighted papers may not be reproduced without explicit permission from the publisher.

Research datasets for download - completed:

VIMHEX 1972 data
FIFE surface DATA

ERA-40 Monthly river basin DATA: 1958-1978; 1979-2002

ECMWF Modeled Precipitation and Surface Flux, Hourly precipitation observations, Rondonia, Brazil: 1999

LBA 1999 Rondonia pasture data archive

2010's

Betts, A.K., R. Desjardins, D. Worth, S. Wang and J. Li (2014), Coupling of winter climate transitions to snow and clouds over the Prairies. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 1118-1139, doi:10.1002/2013JD021168.

Betts, A.K., R. Desjardins, D. Worth and D. Cerkowniak (2013), Impact of land use change on the diurnal cycle climate of the Canadian Prairies, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 11,996–12,011, doi:10.1002/2013JD020717.

Betts, A.K., R. Desjardins and D. Worth (2013), Cloud Radiative Forcing of the Diurnal Cycle Climate of the Canadian Prairies. J. Geophys. Res. 118, 8935–8953, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50593.

Betts, A. K. (2011), Seasonal Climate Transitions in New England. Weather, 66, 245-248 (September). doi: 10.1002/wea.754

Jiménez, C., C. Prigent, B. Mueller, S. I. Seneviratne, M. F. McCabe, E.F. Wood, W. B. Rossow, G. Balsamo, A. K. Betts, P. A. Dirmeyer, J. B. Fisher, M. Jung, M. Kanamitsu, R. H. Reichle, M. Reichstein, M. Rodell, J. Sheffield, K. Tu and K. Wang (2011), Global inter-comparison of 12 land surface heat flux estimates. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D02102, doi:10.1029/2010JD014545.

Betts, A. K. and M. A. F. Silva Dias (2010), Progress in understanding land-surface-atmosphere coupling over the Amazon: a review. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 2(6), 20 pp., doi:10.3894/JAMES.2010.2.6. [Published Online 30 Jun. '10] http://james.agu.org/index.php/JAMES/article/view/v2n6/JAMES.2010.2.6

Betts, A. K. and J. C. Chiu (2010), Idealized model for changes in equilibrium temperature, mixed layer depth and boundary layer cloud over land in a doubled CO2 climate. J. Geophys. Res.,115, D19108, doi:10.1029/2009JD012888

2000's

Betts, A.K., G. Fisch, C. von Randow, M.A.F. Silva Dias, J.C.P. Cohen, R. da Silva and D.R. Fitzjarrald (2009), The Amazonian boundary layer and mesoscale circulations. P163-181 in “Amazonia and Global Change”, Michael Keller, Mercedes Bustamante, John Gash, and Pedro Silva Dias, Editors, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., 186, 576 pp., hardbound, 2009, ISBN 978-0-87590-476-4.

Betts, A. K. (2009), Land-surface-atmosphere coupling in observations and models. J. Adv. Model Earth Syst., Vol. 1, Art. #4, 18 pp., doi: 10.3894/JAMES.2009.1.4 [Published Online 1 Jul. '09] http://james.agu.org/index.php/JAMES/article/view/v1n4/JAMES.2009.1.4

Balsamo, G., P. Viterbo, A. Beljaars, B. van den Hurk, M. Hirschi, A.K. Betts and K. Scipal (2009), A revised hydrology for the ECMWF model: Verification from field site to terrestrial water storage and impact in the Integrated Forecast System., J. Hydrometeorol., 10, 623–643. ECMWF Tech. Memo 563. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/tm/501-600/tm563.pdf http://ams.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1175%2F2008JHM1068.1

Wang, J., F. J. F. Chagnon, E. Williams, A. K. Betts, N. O. Renno, L. A. T. Machado, G. Bisht, R. Knox and R. L. Bras (2009), Impact of deforestation in the Amazon basin on cloud climatology. PNAS, 106, 3670-3674. doi:10.1073/pnas.0810156106 http://www.pnas.org/content/106/10/3670.full.pdf+html

Betts, A. K., M. Köhler, and Y. Zhang (2009), Comparison of river basin hydrometeorology in ERA-Interim and ERA-40 reanalyses with observations, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D02101, doi:10.1029/2008JD010761.
ECMWF Tech Memo 568 http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/tm/501-600/tm568.pdf

Betts, A. K. (2008), Land-surface-atmosphere coupling in observations and models. ECMWF Semina on 'The parametrization of sub-grid processes and their interaction with the dynamics', Sept. 1-4, 2008. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/seminar/2008/Betts.pdf

Luo, Y., E. H. Berbery, K. E. Mitchell and A. K. Betts (2007), Relationships between land surface and near-surface atmospheric variables in the NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis. J. Hydrometeorol. 8, 1184-1203.

Betts, A. K. (2007), Coupling of water vapor convergence, clouds, precipitation, and land-surface processes, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D10108, doi:10.1029/2006JD008191.

Betts, A. K., R. Desjardins and D. Worth (2007): Impact of agriculture, forest and cloud feedback on the surface energy balance in BOREAS. Agric. Forest Meteorol., 142, 156-169, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.08.020 [Special book issue, “The Contribution of Agriculture to the State of Climate” Eds., R.L. Desjardins, M.V.K. Sivakumar, C. de Kimpe, ISSN 0168-1923, Elsevier, 2007]

Hall, F. G., E. Brown de Colstoun, G. J. Collatz, D. Landis, P. Dirmeyer, A. Betts, G. J. Huffman, L. Bounoua, and B. Meeson (2006), ISLSCP Initiative II global data sets: Surface boundary conditions and atmospheric forcings for land atmosphere studies, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D22S01, doi:10.1029/2006JD007366.

Beljaars, A., G. Balsamo, A. Betts and P. Viterbo (2006): Atmosphere/surface interactions in the ECMWF model at high latitudes, ECMWF Seminar on Polar Meteorology, 4-8 September 2006. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/do/references/list/200609

Betts, A.K., M. Zhao, P. A. Dirmeyer and A.C.M. Beljaars (2006), Comparison of ERA40 and NCEP/DOE near-surface datasets with other ISLSCP-II datasets. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D22S04, doi:10.1029/2006JD007174.

Betts, A. K. (2006), Radiative scaling of the nocturnal boundary layer and the diurnal temperature range, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D07105, doi:10.1029/2005JD006560.

Betts, A.K., J. Ball, A. Barr, T. A. Black, J. H. McCaughey and P. Viterbo, (2006), Assessing land-surface-atmosphere coupling in the ERA-40 reanalysis with boreal forest data. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 140, 355-382, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.08.009. Also available as http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/era40/ERA40PRS26_rev1.pdf

Strong, C., J. D. Fuentes, M. Garstang and A. K. Betts, (2005): Daytime Cycle of Low-Level Clouds and the Tropical Convective Boundary Layer in Southwestern Amazonia. J. Appl. Meteor., 44, 1607-1619.

Betts, A. K, J.H., Ball, P. Viterbo, A. Dai and J. A. Marengo, (2005): Hydrometeorology of the Amazon in ERA-40. J. Hydrometeorology. 6, 764-774. ERA-40 Project Report 22. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/era40/ERA40PRS22.pdf

Betts, A. K and P. Viterbo, (2005): Land-surface, boundary layer and cloud-field coupling over the south-western Amazon in ERA-40. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D14108, doi:10.1029/2004JD005702. ERA-40 Project Report 25 (in color) http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/era40/ERA40PRS25.pdf

Betts, A. K., (2004): Review of A Soil-Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer Schemes and Large-Scale Hydrological Models, vol. 270 - A.J. Dolman, A.J. Hall, M.L. Kavvas, T. Oki, J.W. Pomeroy (Eds.), IAHS Press.@ Agric. Forest Meteorol., 126, p.183, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.05.005.

Betts, A. K., B. Helliker and J. Berry, (2004), Coupling between CO2, water vapor, temperature and radon and their fluxes in an idealized equilibrium boundary layer over land. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D18103, doi:10.1029/2003JD004420.

Betts, A.K., and A.C.M. Beljaars, (2004): Comparisons of ECMWF ISLSCP-II near-surface dataset from ERA-40 with GEWEX observational data sets. GEWEX News, 14, 1, Feb. 2004. http://www.gewex.org/Feb2004.pdf

Betts, A. K., (2004): Understanding Hydrometeorology using global models. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 85, 1673-1688.

Hall, F.G., A.K. Betts, S. Frolking, R. Brown, J. M. Chen, W. Chen, S. Halldin, D. P. Lettenmaier, and J. Schafer, (2004): The boreal climate. Chapter 7 in Vegetation, Water, Humans and the Climate: a New Perspective on an Interactive System, A Synthesis of the IGBP Core Project, Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle, Eds, Kabat et al., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp. 93-114. ISSN 1619-2435, ISBN 3-540-42400-8.

Betts, A. K., J. H. Ball and P. Viterbo, (2003): Evaluation of the ERA-40 surface water budget and surface temperature for the Mackenzie River basin. J. Hydrometeorology, 4, 1194-1211. Also available in color as ERA-40 Project report series No. 6 from ECMWF, Reading RG2 9AX, UK. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/ERA40/ERA40PRS_6.pdf

Berbery, E. H., Y. Luo, K. E. Mitchell and A. K. Betts, (2003), Eta model-estimated land surface processes and the hydrologic cycle of the Mississippi Basin , J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D16), 8852, doi:10.1029/2002JD003192.

Betts, A.K., and A.C.M. Beljaars, (2003): ECMWF ISLSCP-II near-surface dataset from ERA-40. ERA-40 Project report series No. 8 from ECMWF, Reading RG2 9AX, UK. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/do/references/show?id=85944

Betts, A.K., (2003): Diurnal Cycle. Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, J. R. Holton J. Pyle and J. A. Curry, Eds., Academic Press, London, pp. 640-643. ISBN 0-12-227090-8

Betts, A.K. (2003), The diurnal cycle over land in “Forests at the Land-Atmosphere interface” [ISBN: 0-85199-677-9], Eds.,.M. Mencuccini, J. Grace, J. Moncrieff and K..McNaughton, pp. 73-93, CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, UK.

Betts, A. K. and C. Jakob, (2002), Study of diurnal cycle of convective precipitation over Amazonia using a single column model. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4732, doi:10.1029/2002JD002264.

Betts, A. K., J. Fuentes, M. Garstang, and J. H. Ball, (2002): Surface diurnal cycle and Boundary Layer structure over Rondonia during the rainy season, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8065, doi:10.1029/2001JD000356.

Betts, A. K. and C. Jakob, (2002), Evaluation of the diurnal cycle of precipitation, surface thermodynamics and surface fluxes in the ECMWF model using LBA data. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8045, doi:10.1029/2001JD000427

Betts, A. K., J. H. Ball, and J. Fuentes, (2002), Calibration and correction of LBA/TRMM Abracos pasture site merged dataset. [LBABettsDatadoc.pdf] Data set and documents available at ftp://daac.ornl.gov/data/lba/physical_climate/Betts

Barr, A. G., A K. Betts, T.A. Black , J.H. McCaughey and C.S. Smith (2001): Intercomparison of BOREAS Northern and Southern Study Area Surface Fluxes in 1994. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 33543-33550.

Betts, A. K., P. Viterbo, A.C.M. Beljaars and B.J.J.M. van den Hurk, (2001): Impact of BOREAS on the ECMWF Forecast Model. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 33593-33604.

Betts, A. K., J. H. Ball, and J. H. McCaughey, (2001): Near-surface climate in the boreal forest. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 33529-33542, doi:10.1029/2001JD900047.

Betts, A. K. and P. Viterbo, (2001): River basin budgets from ERA-40. In “Workshop on Reanalysis”, ERA-40 Project Report series #3, 5-9 November, 2001, pp229-264. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/proceedings/ERA40-reanalysisworkshop/bettsviterbo.pdf

Betts, A. K., (2001): The diurnal cycle over land. ECMWF Semina, Sept. 3-7, 14pp http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/seminar/2001/sem01betts.pdf

Van den Hurk, B.J.J.M., P. Viterbo, A.C.M. Beljaars and A. K. Betts, 2000: Offline validation of the ERA40 surface scheme. ECMWF Tech Memo, 295, 43 pp., Eur. Cent. For Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield Park, Reading RG2 9AX, England,UK. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/tm/001-300/tm295.pdf

Betts, A. K., 2000: Idealized model for equilibrium boundary layer over land. J. Hydrometeorol., 1, 507-523.

Roads, J. and A. K. Betts, 2000: NCEP/NCAR and ECMWF Reanalysis Surface Water and Energy Budgets for the GCIP Region. J. Hydrometeorol., 1, 88-94.

Betts, A. K. and P. Viterbo, 2000: Hydrological budgets and surface energy balance of seven subbasins of the Mackenzie River from the ECMWF model. J. Hydrometeorol., 1, 47-60.

Betts, A., and P. Viterbo, 2000. BOREAS AFM-08 ECMWF Hourly Surface and Upper Air Data for the SSA and NSA. Data set. Available on-line [http://www.daac.ornl.gov/BOREAS/guides/AFM08_ECMWF.html] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/523.

1990's

Herring, D., (1999), Should we talk about the weather? Improving global forecasts with BOREAS research. NASA Earth Observatory Feature Article, Boreal ecosystem series, 3. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/BOREASAlbedo

(Plain English review of Alan Betts research)

Viterbo, P. and A.K. Betts, 1999: The impact on ECMWF forecasts of changes to the albedo of the boreal forests in the presence of snow. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 27803-27810.

Entekhabi, D., G.R. Asrar, A.K. Betts, K.J. Beven, R.L. Bras, C.L. Duffy, T. Dunne, R.D. Koster, D.P. Lettenmaier, D.B. McLaughlin, W.J. Shuttleworth, M.T. van Genuchten, M.-Y. Wei, and E.F. Wood, 1999: An Agenda for Land-surface Hydrology Research and a Call for the Second International Hydrological Decade. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80, 2043-2058.

Betts, A.K., P. Viterbo, A.C.M. Beljaars and B. Van den Hurk, 1999: Use of field data to diagnose land-surface interaction. Proc. ECMWF Semina on Diagnosis of Models and Data Assimilation systems. Sept. 6-10, 1999, Reading, United Kingdom, 347-364. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/seminar/1999/sem1999betts.pdf

Betts, A. K., J.H. Ball and P. Viterbo, 1999: Basin-scale surface water and energy budgets for the Mississippi from the ECMWF Reanalysis. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 19293-19306. 1999JD900056.pdf).

Viterbo, P. and A.K. Betts, 1999: The impact of the ECMWF reanalysis soil water on forecasts of the July 1993 Mississippi Flood. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 19361-19366.

Betts, A. K., M. L. Goulden, and S.C. Wofsy, 1999: Controls on evaporation in a boreal spruce forest. J. Climate, 12, 1601-1618.

Betts, A. K., P. Viterbo and E. Wood, 1998: Surface energy and water balance for the Arkansas-Red River basin from the ECMWF reanalysis. J. Climate, 11, 2881-2897.

Betts A. K., P. Viterbo, A.C.M. Beljaars, H-L. Pan, S-Y. Hong, M. L.Goulden and S.C. Wofsy, 1998: Evaluation of the land-surface interaction in the ECMWF and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses over grassland (FIFE) and boreal forest (BOREAS). J. Geophys. Res., 103, 23079-23085.

Betts, A. K., 1998: Evaluating the land-surface component of NWP models using field experiment data, specifically BOREAS. ECMWF/WCRP/GEWEX Workshop, 29 June - 2 July 1998. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/workshop/1998/Modelling/wsmodelling_betts.pdf

Betts A. K. and J. H. Ball, 1998: FIFE surface climate and site-average dataset: 1987-1989. J. Atmos Sci , 55, 1091-1108.

Betts, A. K., 1998: Surface diurnal cycle over Venezuela. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 67, 213-216. (Herbert Riehl Memorial Vol.).

Betts A. K., P. Viterbo and A.C.M. Beljaars, 1998: Comparison of the land-surface interaction in the ECMWF reanalysis model with the 1987 FIFE data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 186-198.

Barr, A.G. A.K. Betts, R. Desjardins and J. I. MacPherson, 1997: Comparison of regional surface fluxes from boundary-layer budgets and aircraft measurements above boreal forest. J. Geophys. Res, 102, 29213-29218.

MacPherson, J. I. and A. K. Betts, 1997: Aircraft encounters with strong coherent vortices over the boreal forest. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 29231-29234.

Barr, A.G. and A.K. Betts, 1997: Radiosonde Boundary-layer budgets above a Boreal forest. J. Geophys. Res, 102, 29205-29212.

Betts A. K. and J. H. Ball, 1997: Albedo over the boreal forest. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 28901-28910.

Betts, A. K., J. H. Ball, B. J. Smith and S. R. Shewchuk, 1997: Comparison of SRC/BOREAS and AES humidity sensors at Meadow Lake , Saskatchewan. J. Geophys. Res.,102, 28911-28914.

Betts, A.K., F.Chen, K. Mitchell, and Z.Janjic, 1997: Assessment of land-surface and boundary layer models in 2 operational versions of the Eta Model using FIFE data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 2896-2915.

Betts, A. K., 1997: Review of 'Coupling Large-scale Atmospheric and Hydrologic Models' by Schultz, Hornbogen, Viterbo and Noihlan, IAHS press, Institute of Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB, U.K. Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 83, 511.

Sellers, P.J., R.E. Dickinson, D.A. Randall, A.K. Betts, F.G. Hall, J.A. Berry, C.J. Collatz, A.S. Denning, H.A. Mooney, C.A. Nobre, and N. Sato, 1997: Modeling the exchanges of energy, water and carbon between the continents and the atmosphere. Science, 275, 502-509.

Betts, A.K. and A.G. Barr, 1996: FIFE 1987 Sonde Budget revisited. J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23285-23288.

Betts, A.K., S-Y. Hong and H-L. Pan, 1996: Comparison of NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis with 1987 FIFE data. Mon. Wea.Rev., 124, 1480-1498.

Betts, A. K., J.H. Ball, A.C.M. Beljaars, M.J. Miller and P. Viterbo, 1996: The land-surface-atmosphere interaction: a review based on observational and global modeling perspectives. J. Geophys. Res. 101, 7209-7225.

Chen,F.,K. Mitchell, J. Schaake, Y. Xue, H-L. Pan, V. Koren, Q. Duan, and A. Betts, 1996: Modeling of land-surface evaporation by four schemes and comparison with FIFE observations. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 7251-7268.

Beljaars, A.C.M., P. Viterbo, M.J. Miller and A.K. Betts, 1996: The anomalous rainfall over the United States during July 1993: sensitivity to land surface parameterization and soil moisture anomalies. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 362-383.

Betts, A.K. and J.H. Ball, 1995: The FIFE surface diurnal cycle climate. J. Geophys. Res. 100, 25679-25693.

Emanuel, K., D. Raymond, A. Betts, L. Bosart, C. Bretherton, K. Droegemeier, B. Farrell, J.M. Fritsch, R. Houze, M. LeMone, D. Lilly, R. Rotunno, M. Shapiro, R. Smith, and A. Thorpe, 1995: Report of the First Prospectus Development Team of the U.S. Weather Research Program to NOAA and the NSF. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 76, 1194-1208.

Betts, A. K., 1994: Relation between equilibrium evaporation and the saturation pressure budget. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 71, 235-245.

Betts, A.K. and J.H. Ball, 1994: Budget analysis of FIFE-1987 sonde data. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 3655-3666.

Betts, A.K. and A. Beljaars, 1993: Estimation of effective roughness length for heat and momentum from FIFE data. Atmos. Res. 30, 251-261.

Betts, A.K., J.H. Ball, and A.C.M. Beljaars, 1993: Comparison between the land surface response of the European Centre model and the FIFE-1987 data. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 119, 975-1001.

Betts, A.K., 1992: FIFE Atmospheric Boundary Layer Budget Methods. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 18523-18532.

Betts, A.K., R.L. Desjardins, and J.I. MacPherson, 1992: Budget analysis of the Boundary Layer grid flights during FIFE-1987. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 18533-18546.

Betts, A.K., R.L. Desjardins, J.I. MacPherson, and R.D. Kelly, 1990: Boundary Layer Heat and Moisture Budgets from FIFE. Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 50, 109-137.

1980's

Betts, A. K., 1984: Boundary layer thermodynamics of a High Plains severe storm. Mon. Wea.Rev., 112, 2199 2211.

1970's

McNab, A. L., and A. K. Betts, 1978: A Mesoscale Budget Study of Cumulus Convection. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106, pp. 1317-1331.

Miller, M. J., and A. K. Betts, 1977: Traveling Convective Storms over Venezuela. Mon. Wea. Rev., 105, pp. 833-848.

Betts, A. K., 1977: Comments on 'Budget Studies of Heat Flux Profiles in the Convective Boundary Layer over Land'. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 103, pp. 216-217.

Betts, A. K., 1976: Modeling Subcloud Layer Structure and Interaction with Shallow Cumulus Layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, pp. 2363-2382.

Betts, A. K., 1973: A Composite Mesoscale Cumulonimbus Budget. J. Atmos. Sci., 30, pp. 597-610.

Betts, A. K. (1970): Cumulus Convection. Ph.D. Thesis, University of London, 151 pp. Available from http://alanbetts.com/research/paper/cumulus-convection/#abstract

Recent Research Talks

Selected research talks (pdfs)