Aircraft encounters with strong coherent vortices over the boreal forest.
A number of intense low‐level vortices were encountered at a height of 30 m over the boreal forest by a Twin Otter atmospheric research aircraft. They imposed strong vertical and lateral accelerations on this aircraft: the most energetic had an updraft speed in excess of 11 m s−1, only 20 m above the forest. All were associated with large sensible heat fluxes, low wind speeds, and deep boundary layers.
MacPherson, J. I. and A. K. Betts, 1997: Aircraft encounters with strong coherent vortices over the boreal forest. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 29231-29234.