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Research Papers and Talks by Dr. Alan K. Betts

Reverse chronological order. First paper is brief overview.

Papers published by the American Meteorological Society are subject to AMS copyright. View published open abstracts at http://dx.doi.org. Copyrighted papers may not be reproduced without explicit permission from the publisher.

Research datasets for download - completed:

VIMHEX 1972 data ; FIFE surface DATA

ERA-40 Monthly river basin DATA: 1958-1978; 1979-2002

ECMWF Modeled Precipitation and Surface Flux, Hourly precipitation observations, Rondonia, Brazil: 1999

LBA 1999 Rondonia pasture data archive


Betts, A. K. (2017). A brief overview of my research by decade.


Betts, A. K., (2004): Review of A Soil-Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer Schemes and Large-Scale Hydrological Models, vol. 270 - A.J. Dolman, A.J. Hall, M.L. Kavvas, T. Oki, J.W. Pomeroy (Eds.), IAHS Press.@ Agric. Forest Meteorol., 126, p.183, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.05.005.

Bechtold, P., J.-P. Chaboureau, A. Beljaars, A. K. Betts , M. Miller, M. Köhler, M. Miller and J.-L. Redelsperger, (2004): The simulation of the diurnal cycle of convective precipitation over land in a global model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 3119-3137.

Betts, A. K., B. Helliker and J. Berry, (2004), Coupling between CO2, water vapor, temperature and radon and their fluxes in an idealized equilibrium boundary layer over land. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D18103, doi:10.1029/2003JD004420.

Betts, A. K. and C. Jakob, (2002), Study of diurnal cycle of convective precipitation over Amazonia using a single column model. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4732, doi:10.1029/2002JD002264.

Betts, A. K. and C. Jakob, (2002), Evaluation of the diurnal cycle of precipitation, surface thermodynamics and surface fluxes in the ECMWF model using LBA data. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8045, doi:10.1029/2001JD000427

Betts, A. K., P. Viterbo, A.C.M. Beljaars and B.J.J.M. van den Hurk, (2001): Impact of BOREAS on the ECMWF Forecast Model. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 33593-33604.

Van den Hurk, B.J.J.M., P. Viterbo, A.C.M. Beljaars and A. K. Betts, 2000: Offline validation of the ERA40 surface scheme. ECMWF Tech Memo, 295, 43 pp., Eur. Cent. For Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield Park, Reading RG2 9AX, England,UK. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/tm/001-300/tm295.pdf


Herring, D., (1999), Should we talk about the weather? Improving global forecasts with BOREAS research. NASA Earth Observatory Feature Article, Boreal ecosystem series, 3. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/BOREASAlbedo

(Plain English review of Alan Betts research)

Viterbo, P. and A.K. Betts, 1999: The impact on ECMWF forecasts of changes to the albedo of the boreal forests in the presence of snow. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 27803-27810.

Betts, A.K., P. Viterbo, A.C.M. Beljaars and B. Van den Hurk, 1999: Use of field data to diagnose land-surface interaction. Proc. ECMWF Semina on Diagnosis of Models and Data Assimilation systems. Sept. 6-10, 1999, Reading, United Kingdom, 347-364. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/seminar/1999/sem1999betts.pdf

Betts, A. K., 1998: Evaluating the land-surface component of NWP models using field experiment data, specifically BOREAS. ECMWF/WCRP/GEWEX Workshop, 29 June - 2 July 1998. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/workshop/1998/Modelling/wsmodelling_betts.pdf

Betts A. K., P. Viterbo and A.C.M. Beljaars, 1998: Comparison of the land-surface interaction in the ECMWF reanalysis model with the 1987 FIFE data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 186-198.

Sellers, P.J., R.E. Dickinson, D.A. Randall, A.K. Betts, F.G. Hall, J.A. Berry, C.J. Collatz, A.S. Denning, H.A. Mooney, C.A. Nobre, and N. Sato, 1997: Modeling the exchanges of energy, water and carbon between the continents and the atmosphere. Science, 275, 502-509.

Betts, A.K., 1997: Trade Cumulus: Observations and Modeling. Chapter 4 (pp 99-126) in The Physics and Parameterization of Moist Atmospheric Convection, Ed. R. K. Smith, NATO ASI Series C: Vol. 505, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 498pp.

Betts, A.K.: 1997, The Parameterization of deep convection, Chapter 10 (pp 255-279) in The Physics and Parameterization of Moist Atmospheric Convection, Ed. R. K. Smith, NATO ASI Series C: Vol. 505, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 498pp.

Betts, A. K., 1996: The parameterization of deep convection: a review. ECMWF Workshop on “New insights and approaches to convective parameterization”, 4-7 Nov., 1996, Reading, U.K., pp 166-188. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/workshop/1996/New%20Insights/newinsights_betts.pdf

Betts, A.K. and A.G. Barr, 1996: FIFE 1987 Sonde Budget revisited. J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23285-23288.

Betts, A.K., S-Y. Hong and H-L. Pan, 1996: Comparison of NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis with 1987 FIFE data. Mon. Wea.Rev., 124, 1480-1498.

Betts, A. K., J.H. Ball, A.C.M. Beljaars, M.J. Miller and P. Viterbo, 1996: The land-surface-atmosphere interaction: a review based on observational and global modeling perspectives. J. Geophys. Res. 101, 7209-7225.

Chen,F.,K. Mitchell, J. Schaake, Y. Xue, H-L. Pan, V. Koren, Q. Duan, and A. Betts, 1996: Modeling of land-surface evaporation by four schemes and comparison with FIFE observations. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 7251-7268.

Beljaars, A.C.M., P. Viterbo, M.J. Miller and A.K. Betts, 1996: The anomalous rainfall over the United States during July 1993: sensitivity to land surface parameterization and soil moisture anomalies. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 362-383.

Bretherton, C., E. Klinker, A.K. Betts, and J.A. Coakley, 1995: Comparison of ceilometer, satellite and synoptic measurements of boundary layer cloudiness and the ECMWF diagnostic cloud parameterization scheme during ASTEX. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 2736-2751.

Betts A.K., Bretherton, C., and E. Klinker, 1995: Relation between mean boundary layer structure and cloudiness at the R/V Valdivia during ASTEX. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 2752-2762.

Emanuel, K., D. Raymond, A. Betts, L. Bosart, C. Bretherton, K. Droegemeier, B. Farrell, J.M. Fritsch, R. Houze, M. LeMone, D. Lilly, R. Rotunno, M. Shapiro, R. Smith, and A. Thorpe, 1995: Report of the First Prospectus Development Team of the U.S. Weather Research Program to NOAA and the NSF. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 76, 1194-1208.

Betts, A. K., 1995: A lagged mixing parameterization for the dry convective boundary layer. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 1912-1915.

Betts, A. K., 1994: Relation between equilibrium evaporation and the saturation pressure budget. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 71, 235-245.

Slingo, J., M. Blackburn, A. Betts, R. Brugge, B. Hoskins, M. Miller, L.Steenman-Clark, and J. Thuburn, 1994: Mean Climate and Transience in the Tropics of the UGAMP GCM. Part I: Sensitivity to Convective parametrization. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 120, 861-880.

Betts, A.K. and J.H. Ball, 1994: Budget analysis of FIFE-1987 sonde data. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 3655-3666.

Betts, A.K. and M.J. Miller, 1993. The Betts-Miller scheme. Chapter 9 in "The Representation of Cumulus Convection in Numerical Models of the Atmosphere". (Eds. K.A. Emanuel and D.J. Raymond.) Amer. Meteor. Soc., Meteor. Mon. 24, No 46, 107-121.

Betts, A.K. and A. Beljaars, 1993: Estimation of effective roughness length for heat and momentum from FIFE data. Atmos. Res. 30, 251-261.

Betts, A.K., J.H. Ball, and A.C.M. Beljaars, 1993: Comparison between the land surface response of the European Centre model and the FIFE-1987 data. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 119, 975-1001.

Betts, A.K., 1993: Mixing line parameterizations for cloudy boundary layers. ECMWF/GCSS Workshop on the parameterization of cloud topped BL's, June 8-11, 1993. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/workshop/1993/Parametrization/betts.pdf

Beljaars, A. C. M. and A. K. Betts, 1992: Validation of the boundary layer representation in the ECMWF model. ECMWF Semina proceedings, 7-11 Sept. 1992, Validation of models over Europe, Vol II, 159-195. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/seminar/1992/validation2beljaars.pdf

Betts, A.K., and R. Boers, 1990: A cloudiness transition in a marine boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 1480-1497.


Betts, A.K. and W. L. Ridgway, 1989: Climatic equilibrium of the atmospheric convective boundary layer over a tropical ocean. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 2621-2641.

Betts, A. K., and Harshvardhan, 1987: Thermodynamic constraint on the cloud liquid water feedback in climate models. J. Geophys. Res., 92, 8483-8485.

Betts, A. K., 1986: A new convective adjustment scheme. Part I: Observational and theoretical basis. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 112, 677 692.

Betts, A. K. and M. J. Miller, 1986: A new convective adjustment scheme. Part II: Single column tests using GATE wave, BOMEX, ATEX, and Arctic Airmass data sets. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 112, 693 -710.

Betts, A. K., 1985: Mixing line analysis of clouds and cloudy boundary layers. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 2751 2763.

Betts, A. K. and M. J. Miller, 1985: A new convective adjustment scheme. ECMWF Tech. Rep. No. 43. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/tr/tr43.pdf

Betts, A K, 1985: A new convective adjustment scheme. NAS-NRC Proceedings of the First National Workshop on the Global Weather Experiment, Vol. 2, Pt. 2 p 706-724 (SEE N86-24142 14-47); UNITED STATES.

Betts, A. K. and M. J. Miller, 1984: A new convective adjustment scheme, Pts. I and II. ECMWF technical Report No. 43, ECMWF, Reading, RG2 9AX, England, 68 pp.

Betts, A. K., 1983: Atmospheric convective structure and a convection scheme based on saturation point methods. ECMWF Workshop on “Convection in large-scale numerical models” 28 Nov.-1 Dec, 1983, Reading U. K., pp.69-94. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/workshop/1983/Convection/betts.pdf

Betts, A. K., 1982: Cloud Thermodynamic Models in Saturation Point Coordinates. J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 2182- 2191.

Houze, R. A., and A. K.Betts, 1981: Convection in GATE. Rev. Geophys. and Space Phys., 19, 541-576.

Houze, R. A., and A. K. Betts, 1980: Clouds, Convection and Convective Models. WMO Monograph: Synthesis GATE Scientific Results, Kiev, 1980.


Betts, A. K., K. Fraedrich, M. Miller, M. Moncrieff, R. Pearce and P. Rowntree, 1976: Parameterization of Shallow and Deep Convection. Section 3 of Report of Study Conference on the Development of Numerical Models for the Tropics. Exeter, 4-10 April, 1976, GARP Report No. 13, WMO, C.P. No.5, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland.

Rodenhuis, D. R., and A. K. Betts, 1974: The Convection Subprogram for GATE, W.M.O. GATE Report No. 7.

Betts, A. K., 1974: Thermodynamic Classification of Tropical Convective Soundings. Mon. Wea. Rev., 102, pp.760-764.

Garstang, M., and A. K. Betts, 1974: A Review of the Tropical Boundary Layer and Cumulus Convection: Structure, Parameterization, and Modelling. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 55, pp. 1195-1205.

Betts, A. K., 1974: Reply to comments on "Non-Precipitating Cumulus Convection and its Parameterization." Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 100, pp. 469-471.

Betts, A. K., 1974: The Scientific Basis and Objectives of the U.S. Convection Subprogram for the GATE. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 55, pp. 304-313.

Moore, D.A. and A. K. Betts, 1974: Diagnostic Tests of Models for the Thermal Structure of the Non-precipitating Convective Boundary Layer. Atmos. Sci. Paper No. 217, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO 80521. 70pp

Betts, A. K., 1973: Draft of the Convection Subprogram for the GATE. Prepared for the International Scientific Management Group for the GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment, 88 pp.

Betts, A. K., 1973: A Composite Mesoscale Cumulonimbus Budget. J. Atmos. Sci., 30, pp. 597-610.

Betts, A. K., 1973: Non-Precipitating Convection and Its Parameterization. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 99, 178-196.

Betts, A. K. (1970): Cumulus Convection. Ph.D. Thesis, University of London, 151 pp. Available from http://alanbetts.com/research/paper/cumulus-convection/#abstract

Recent Research Talks

Selected research talks (pdfs)