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Research Papers and Talks by Dr. Alan K. Betts

Reverse chronological order. First paper is brief overview.

Papers published by the American Meteorological Society are subject to AMS copyright. View published open abstracts at http://dx.doi.org. Copyrighted papers may not be reproduced without explicit permission from the publisher.

Research datasets for download - completed:

VIMHEX 1972 data ; FIFE surface DATA

ERA-40 Monthly river basin DATA: 1958-1978; 1979-2002

ECMWF Modeled Precipitation and Surface Flux, Hourly precipitation observations, Rondonia, Brazil: 1999

LBA 1999 Rondonia pasture data archive


Betts, A. K. (2017). A brief overview of my research by decade.

Zhou, Y. P., K. Xu, Y. C. Sud, and A. K. Betts (2011), Recent trends of the tropical hydrological cycle inferred from Global Precipitation Climatology Project and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D09101, doi:10.1029/2010JD015197.

Betts, A. K. and M. A. F. Silva Dias (2010), Progress in understanding land-surface-atmosphere coupling over the Amazon: a review. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 2(6), 20 pp., doi:10.3894/JAMES.2010.2.6. [Published Online 30 Jun. '10] http://james.agu.org/index.php/JAMES/article/view/v2n6/JAMES.2010.2.6


Betts, A.K., G. Fisch, C. von Randow, M.A.F. Silva Dias, J.C.P. Cohen, R. da Silva and D.R. Fitzjarrald (2009), The Amazonian boundary layer and mesoscale circulations. P163-181 in “Amazonia and Global Change”, Michael Keller, Mercedes Bustamante, John Gash, and Pedro Silva Dias, Editors, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., 186, 576 pp., hardbound, 2009, ISBN 978-0-87590-476-4.

Betts, A. K. (2009), Land-surface-atmosphere coupling in observations and models. J. Adv. Model Earth Syst., Vol. 1, Art. #4, 18 pp., doi: 10.3894/JAMES.2009.1.4 [Published Online 1 Jul. '09] http://james.agu.org/index.php/JAMES/article/view/v1n4/JAMES.2009.1.4

Wang, J., F. J. F. Chagnon, E. Williams, A. K. Betts, N. O. Renno, L. A. T. Machado, G. Bisht, R. Knox and R. L. Bras (2009), Impact of deforestation in the Amazon basin on cloud climatology. PNAS, 106, 3670-3674. doi:10.1073/pnas.0810156106 http://www.pnas.org/content/106/10/3670.full.pdf+html

Fernandes, K., R. Fu and A. K. Betts (2008), How well does the ERA-40 surface water budget compare to observations in the Amazon River basin? J. Geophys. Res., 113, D11117, doi:10.1029/2007JD009220.

Strong, C., J. D. Fuentes, M. Garstang and A. K. Betts, (2005): Daytime Cycle of Low-Level Clouds and the Tropical Convective Boundary Layer in Southwestern Amazonia. J. Appl. Meteor., 44, 1607-1619.

Betts, A. K and P. Viterbo, (2005): Land-surface, boundary layer and cloud-field coupling over the south-western Amazon in ERA-40. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D14108, doi:10.1029/2004JD005702. ERA-40 Project Report 25 (in color) http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/era40/ERA40PRS25.pdf

Betts, A. K. and C. Jakob, (2002), Study of diurnal cycle of convective precipitation over Amazonia using a single column model. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4732, doi:10.1029/2002JD002264.

Williams, E. and 32 Co-authors, (2002): Contrasting Convective Regimes Over the Amazon: Implications for Cloud Electrification, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8082, doi:10.1029/2001JD000380

Silva Dias, M. A. F., W. Petersen, P.L. Silva Dias, R. Cifelli, A.K. Betts, M. Longo, A.M. Gomes, G.F. Fisch, M.A. Antonio, and R.I. Albrecht, (2002): A case study of convective organization into precipitating lines in the Southwest Amazon during the WETAMC AND TRMM-LBA. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8078, doi:10.1029/2001JD000375.

Betts, A. K., J. Fuentes, M. Garstang, and J. H. Ball, (2002): Surface diurnal cycle and Boundary Layer structure over Rondonia during the rainy season, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8065, doi:10.1029/2001JD000356.

Betts, A. K., L.V. Gatti, A.M. Cordova, M. A. F. Silva Dias, and J. Fuentes, (2002): Transport of ozone to the surface by convective downdrafts at night. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8046, doi:10.1029/2000JD000158.

Betts, A. K., J. H. Ball, and J. Fuentes, (2002), Calibration and correction of LBA/TRMM Abracos pasture site merged dataset. [LBABettsDatadoc.pdf] Data set and documents available at ftp://daac.ornl.gov/data/lba/physical_climate/Betts

Silva Dias, M.A., A..J. Dolman, S. Rutledge, E. Zipser, P. Silva Dias, G. Fisch, C. Nobre, P. Kabat, B. Ferrier, A. Betts, J. Halverson, M. Garstang, J. Fuentes, A. Manzi, H. Rocha, J.A. Marengo, C. Morales and N.J. Bink, 2000: Convective systems and surface processes in Amazonia during the WETAMC/LBA. BAHC News, 7, 3-7.


Betts, A. K., 1998: Climate-Convection feedbacks: some further issues. Climatic Change. 39, 35-38. DOI 10.1023/A:1005323805826.

Betts, A. K., 1998: Surface diurnal cycle over Venezuela. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 67, 213-216. (Herbert Riehl Memorial Vol.).

Betts, A.K., 1997: Trade Cumulus: Observations and Modeling. Chapter 4 (pp 99-126) in The Physics and Parameterization of Moist Atmospheric Convection, Ed. R. K. Smith, NATO ASI Series C: Vol. 505, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 498pp.

Bretherton, C., E. Klinker, A.K. Betts, and J.A. Coakley, 1995: Comparison of ceilometer, satellite and synoptic measurements of boundary layer cloudiness and the ECMWF diagnostic cloud parameterization scheme during ASTEX. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 2736-2751.

Betts A.K., Bretherton, C., and E. Klinker, 1995: Relation between mean boundary layer structure and cloudiness at the R/V Valdivia during ASTEX. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 2752-2762.

Slingo, J., M. Blackburn, A. Betts, R. Brugge, B. Hoskins, M. Miller, L.Steenman-Clark, and J. Thuburn, 1994: Mean Climate and Transience in the Tropics of the UGAMP GCM. Part I: Sensitivity to Convective parametrization. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 120, 861-880.

Betts, A.K. and M.J. Miller, 1993. The Betts-Miller scheme. Chapter 9 in "The Representation of Cumulus Convection in Numerical Models of the Atmosphere". (Eds. K.A. Emanuel and D.J. Raymond.) Amer. Meteor. Soc., Meteor. Mon. 24, No 46, 107-121.

Betts A.K., P. Minnis, W. Ridgway, and D. F. Young, 1992: Integration of satellite and surface data using an equilibrium radiative-convective boundary layer model. J. Appl. Meteor., 31, 340-350.

Betts, A. K., and W. Ridgway, 1992: Tropical boundary layer equilibrium in the last Ice Age. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 2529-2534.

Sui, C-H., K-M. Lau and A. K. Betts, 1991: An Equilibrium Model for the coupled ocean-atmosphere Boundary Layer in the tropics. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 3151-3163.

Zipser, E.J., A.K. Betts, F. Ruggiero, and B. Hinton, 1990: Tropical Meteorology: Panel Report, Radar in Meteorology, D. Atlas, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 426-432.

Betts, A. K., 1990: Greenhouse warming and the tropical water budget. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 71, 1464-1465.

Betts, A. K., 1990: Convective boundary layer equilibrium over a tropical ocean. Indo-US Seminar, 6-10 Aug. 1990. Published in "Physical Processes in Atmospheric Models", (Eds. D.R.Sikka and S.S.Sikka), Wiley Eastern Ltd., India, 32-59.


Betts, A.K. and W. L. Ridgway, 1989: Climatic equilibrium of the atmospheric convective boundary layer over a tropical ocean. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 2621-2641.

Betts, A. K., 1989: Mean inversion strength of the convective boundary layer over the oceans. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 115, 997-998.

Betts, A. K. and W. Ridgway, 1988: Coupling of the radiative, convective and surface fluxes over the equatorial Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 522-536.

Betts, A. K., and J. Simpson, 1987: Thermodynamic budget diagrams for the hurricane subcloud layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 842-849.

Heckley, W. A., M. J. Miller, and A. K. Betts, 1987: An example of hurricane tracking and forecasting with a global analysis/fore¬casting system. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 68, 226-229.

Betts, A. K., and B. A. Albrecht, 1987: Conserved variable analysis of boundary layer thermodynamic structure over the tropical oceans. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 83-99.

Betts, A. K., 1985: Vector representation of Trade cumulus thermodynamic fluxes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113, 2173 2175.

Betts, A. K. and M. J. Miller, 1985: A new convective adjustment scheme. ECMWF Tech. Rep. No. 43. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/tr/tr43.pdf

Silva Dias, M. F., A. K. Betts, and D. E. Stevens, 1984: A linear spectral model of tropical mesoscale systems: sensitivity studies. J.Atmos. Sci., 41, 1704 ¬1716.

Betts, A. K., 1983: Atmospheric convective structure and a convection scheme based on saturation point methods. ECMWF Workshop on “Convection in large-scale numerical models” 28 Nov.-1 Dec, 1983, Reading U. K., pp.69-94. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/workshop/1983/Convection/betts.pdf

Houze, R. A., and A. K.Betts, 1981: Convection in GATE. Rev. Geophys. and Space Phys., 19, 541-576.

Houze, R. A., and A. K. Betts, 1980: Clouds, Convection and Convective Models. WMO Monograph: Synthesis GATE Scientific Results, Kiev, 1980.


Albrecht, B., A.K. Betts, W. Schubert, and S.K. Cox, 1979: Model of the Thermodynamic Structure of the Trade-Wind Boundary Layer: Part I. Theoretical Formulation and Sensitivity Tests J. Atmos.Sci., 36, 73-89.

Mower, R. N., G. Austin, A. K. Betts, C. Gautier, R. Grossman, J. Kelley, F. Marks and D. Martin, 1979: A Case Study of GATE Convective Activity. Atmosphere-Ocean, 17, 46-59.

Betts, A.K., 1978: Convection in the Tropics. RS/RMS/AMS/DMG Conf. on 'Meteorology over the Tropical Oceans". Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. Supplement, 105-132. Edited by D.B. Shaw, published by the Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 104 Oxford Road, Reading RG1 7LL, UK.

Betts, A. K., 1977: An assessment of progress towards achieving the central objectives of GATE. II: Cluster and cloud-scales. Report of the GATE Workshop, NCAR, Boulder, CO., July-August 1977.

Miller, M. J., and A. K. Betts, 1977: Traveling Convective Storms over Venezuela. Mon. Wea. Rev., 105, pp. 833-848.

Betts, A. K., 1976: Modeling Subcloud Layer Structure and Interaction with Shallow Cumulus Layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, pp. 2363-2382.

Betts, A. K., 1976: The Thermodynamic Transformation of the Tropical Subcloud Layer by Precipitation and Downdrafts. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, pp. 1008-1020.

Betts, A. K., K. Fraedrich, M. Miller, M. Moncrieff, R. Pearce and P. Rowntree, 1976: Parameterization of Shallow and Deep Convection. Section 3 of Report of Study Conference on the Development of Numerical Models for the Tropics. Exeter, 4-10 April, 1976, GARP Report No. 13, WMO, C.P. No.5, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland.

Betts, A. K., R. W. Grover and M. W. Moncrieff, 1976: Structure and Motion of Tropical Squall Lines over Venezuela. Q.J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 102, pp. 395-404.

Betts, A. K., and D. R. Rodenhuis, 1975: Report on the Field Phase of the GATE Scientific Programme. Chapter 6, Convection Subprogramme. GATE Report No. 16, WMO-ICSU.

Betts, A. K., 1975: Parametric Interpretation of Trade-Wind Cumulus Budget Studies. J. Atmos. Sci., 32, 1934-1945.

Rodenhuis, D. R., and A. K. Betts, 1974: The Convection Subprogram for GATE, W.M.O. GATE Report No. 7.

Betts, A. K., 1974: Thermodynamic Classification of Tropical Convective Soundings. Mon. Wea. Rev., 102, pp.760-764.

Garstang, M., and A. K. Betts, 1974: A Review of the Tropical Boundary Layer and Cumulus Convection: Structure, Parameterization, and Modelling. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 55, pp. 1195-1205.

Betts, A. K., F. J. Dugan and R. W. Grover, 1974: Residual Errors of the VIZ Radio¬sonde Hygristor as Deduced from Observations of Subcloud Layer Structure. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 55, pp. 1123-1125.

Betts, A. K., 1974: The Scientific Basis and Objectives of the U.S. Convection Subprogram for the GATE. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 55, pp. 304-313.

Betts, A. K., 1973: A Relationship Between Stratification, Cloud-Depth and Permitted Cloud Radii. J. Appl. Meteor., 12, pp. 890-893.

Betts, A. K., 1973: Draft of the Convection Subprogram for the GATE. Prepared for the International Scientific Management Group for the GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment, 88 pp.

Betts, A. K., 1973: A Composite Mesoscale Cumulonimbus Budget. J. Atmos. Sci., 30, pp. 597-610.

Betts, A. K., 1973: Precalibration of the VIZ-NWS Radiosonde. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 54, pp. 222-223.

Riehl, H., and A. K. Betts, 1972: Humidity Observations with the 1972 U.S. Radiosonde Instrument. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 53, pp. 887-888

Betts, A. K. (1970): Cumulus Convection. Ph.D. Thesis, University of London, 151 pp. Available from http://alanbetts.com/research/paper/cumulus-convection/#abstract

Recent Research Talks

Selected research talks (pdfs)