Thermodynamic budget diagrams for the hurricane subcloud layer.
We reexamine the idealized hurricane boundary layer budget from Malkus and Riehl using vector diagrams for the thermodynamic budgets in the light of recent observations studies. We conclude that a large air-sea temperature difference can only be maintained with both large fluxes through cloud-base level and a large evaporative cooling of the subcloud layer. The high θE values observed in hurricane eyewalls can be reached if these cloud-base and evaporative fluxes are reduced and the subcloud layer moves toward the sea surface virtual potential temperature.
Betts, A. K., and J. Simpson, 1987: Thermodynamic budget diagrams for the hurricane subcloud layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 842-849.