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Non-Precipitating Convection and Its Parameterization.

This paper discusses the thermodynamic transports of heat, liquid water and (briefly) water vapour by non-precipitating cumulus convection. It is shown that because of the irreversible mixing between cloud and environment, there is a downward transport of enthalpy in the cumulus layer. A lapse-rate adjustment model relates stratification to the life-cycle of a model cloud parcel. A sub-cloud layer model specifies the lower boundary of the lapse-rate model, and the convective transports through cloud-base. Budget equations together with the lapse-rate model, and its time dependent boundary conditions, predict the time development of the cumulus layer, and show the dependence on large-scale mean vertical motion, cloud-base variations, and the surface sensible heat flux.

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Betts, A. K., 1973: Non-Precipitating Convection and Its Parameterization. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 99, 178-196.