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Research Papers and Talks by Dr. Alan K. Betts

Reverse chronological order. First paper is brief overview.

Papers published by the American Meteorological Society are subject to AMS copyright. View published open abstracts at http://dx.doi.org. Copyrighted papers may not be reproduced without explicit permission from the publisher.

Research datasets for download - completed:

VIMHEX 1972 data ; FIFE surface DATA

ERA-40 Monthly river basin DATA: 1958-1978; 1979-2002

ECMWF Modeled Precipitation and Surface Flux, Hourly precipitation observations, Rondonia, Brazil: 1999

LBA 1999 Rondonia pasture data archive


Betts, A. K. (2017). A brief overview of my research by decade.

Betts, A.K., A.B. Tawfik and R.L. Desjardins (2017): Revisiting Hydrometeorology using cloud and climate observations. J. Hydrometeor. JHM-D-16-0203 (in press).

AGU (2016), Betts receives 2016 Bert Bolin Global Environmental Focus Group Award, Eos, 97, doi:10.1029/2016EO060891.

Galford, G.L., Nash, J., Betts, A.K. et al. (2016). Bridging the climate information gap: a framework for engaging knowledge brokers and decision makers in state climate assessments. Climatic Change, 138, 383-395, doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1756-4

Betts, A. K. (2016). Restricting access to science is unethical. http://science.sciencemag.org/content/352/6285/497.e-letters DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.4484.0566

Betts A.K. and A.B. Tawfik (2016), Corrigendum: Annual Climatology of the Diurnal Cycle on the Canadian Prairies. Front. Earth Sci. 4:53. doi: 10.3389/feart.2016.00053

Betts, A. K., R. Desjardins and D. Worth (2016). The Impact of Clouds, Land use and Snow Cover on Climate in the Canadian Prairies. Adv. Sci. Res., 13, 37-42, doi:10.5194/asr-13-37-2016

Betts, A.K. and A.B. Tawfik (2016), Annual climatology of the diurnal cycle on the Canadian Prairies. Front. Earth Sci. 4:1, doi: 10.3389/feart.2016.00001

Betts, A.K., J. Hamilton, S. Ligon and A.M. Mahar (2016), Integrating solar energy and climate research into science education. Earth’s Future, 4, 2-13, doi:10.1002/2015EF000315.

“Land-Atmosphere Interactions” Alpine Summer School, Lecture 1 "Review" by Alan Betts (2015).

"Land-Atmosphere Interactions" Alpine Summer School, Lecture 2: "Canadian Prairies" by Alan Betts (2015).

Betts, A.K., R. Desjardins, A.C.M. Beljaars and A. Tawfik (2015). Observational study of land-surface-cloud-atmosphere coupling on daily timescales. Front. Earth Sci. 3:13. doi: 10.3389/feart.2015.00013

Guilbert, J., A. K. Betts, D. M. Rizzo, B. Beckage and A. Bomblies (2015). Characterization of increased persistence and intensity of precipitation in the Northeastern United States. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 1888–1893, doi:10.1002/2014GL062816

Betts, A., (2015): Diurnal Cycle. In: Gerald R. North (editor-in-chief), John Pyle and Fuqing Zhang (editors). Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, 2nd edition, Vol 1, pp. 319–323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-382225-3.00135-3

Betts, A.K., R. Desjardins, D. Worth and B. Beckage (2014), Climate coupling between temperature, humidity, precipitation and cloud cover over the Canadian Prairies. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 13305-13326, doi:10.1002/2014JD022511.

D'Andrea, F., P. Gentine, A.K. Betts and B.R. Lintner (2014), Triggering Deep Convection with a Probabilistic Plume Model. J. Atmos. Sci., 71, 3881-3901. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-13-0340.1

Beljaars, A.C.M, A.K. Betts, and E. Brown de Colstoun (2014). ISLSCP II ECMWF Near-Surface Meteorology Parameters. In Hall, Forrest G., G. Collatz, B. Meeson, S. Los, E. Brown de Colstoun, and D. Landis (eds.). ISLSCP Initiative II Collection. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov/] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. http://dx.doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1222

Betts, A.K., R. Desjardins, D. Worth, S. Wang and J. Li (2014), Coupling of winter climate transitions to snow and clouds over the Prairies. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 1118-1139, doi:10.1002/2013JD021168.

Betts, A.K., R. Desjardins, D. Worth and D. Cerkowniak (2013), Impact of land use change on the diurnal cycle climate of the Canadian Prairies, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 11,996–12,011, doi:10.1002/2013JD020717.

Betts, A.K., R. Desjardins and D. Worth (2013), Cloud Radiative Forcing of the Diurnal Cycle Climate of the Canadian Prairies. J. Geophys. Res. 118, 8935–8953, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50593.

Gentine, P., A.K. Betts, B.R. Lintner, K.L. Findell, A. Tzella and F. D’Andrea (2013), A probabilistic-bulk model of mixed layer and convection: 1) Clear-sky case. J. Atmos. Sci. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-12-0145.1

Gentine, P., A.K. Betts, B.R. Lintner, K.L. Findell, C.C. van Heerwaarden and F. D’Andrea (2013), A probabilistic-bulk model of coupled mixed layer and convection: 2) Shallow convection case. J. Atmos. Sci. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-12-0146.1

Betts, A.K. and E. Gibson (2012), Environmental journalism revisited. Ch. 41, pp. 382-390, in Environmental Leadership: a Reference Handbook. Deborah R. Gallagher, Editor, SAGE publications Inc., Sept. 2012, ISBN: 9781412981507.

Wu, W., Y. Liu and A.K. Betts (2012), Observational based evaluation of NWP reanalyses in modeling cloud properties over the Southern Great Plains. J. Geophys. Res. 117, D12202, doi:10.1029/2011JD016971

Betts, A. K. (2012), Climate change: Taking a Local Perspective to the Global Level. Earthzine. http://www.earthzine.org/2012/02/27/climate-change-taking-a-local-perspective-to-the-global-level/

Betts, A. K. (2011), Seasonal Climate Transitions in New England. Weather, 66, 245-248 (September). doi: 10.1002/wea.754

Betts, A. K. (2011), Book review: “Climate Change Policy in the European Union: Confronting the Dilemmas of Mitigation and Adaptation?” Edited by: Andrew Jordan, Dave Huitema, Harro van Asselt, Tim Rayner and Frans Berkhout 2010; xx + 284pp; ISBN 978-0-521-19612-3. EOS Trans. AGU, 92 (33), P.277, doi:10.1029/2011EO330006 (16 August, 2011).

Betts, A. K. (2011), A Proposal for Communicating Science, Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 92, 841-842 (July), doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00036.1

Betts, A.K. (2011), Climate Change in Vermont. Atmospheric Research Report, prepared for Agency of Natural Resources, State of Vermont.


Betts, A. K. (2011), Communicating Climate Science. EOS Trans. AGU, 92 (24), P.203, doi:10.1029/2011EO240004. (14 June 2011)

Zhou, Y. P., K. Xu, Y. C. Sud, and A. K. Betts (2011), Recent trends of the tropical hydrological cycle inferred from Global Precipitation Climatology Project and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D09101, doi:10.1029/2010JD015197.

Betts, A.K. (2011): Vermont Climate Change Indicators. Weather, Climate and Society, 3, 106-115, doi: 10.1175/2011WCAS1096.1

Jiménez, C., C. Prigent, B. Mueller, S. I. Seneviratne, M. F. McCabe, E.F. Wood, W. B. Rossow, G. Balsamo, A. K. Betts, P. A. Dirmeyer, J. B. Fisher, M. Jung, M. Kanamitsu, R. H. Reichle, M. Reichstein, M. Rodell, J. Sheffield, K. Tu and K. Wang (2011), Global inter-comparison of 12 land surface heat flux estimates. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D02102, doi:10.1029/2010JD014545.

Betts, A. K. and M. A. F. Silva Dias (2010), Progress in understanding land-surface-atmosphere coupling over the Amazon: a review. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 2(6), 20 pp., doi:10.3894/JAMES.2010.2.6. [Published Online 30 Jun. '10] http://james.agu.org/index.php/JAMES/article/view/v2n6/JAMES.2010.2.6

Betts, A. K. and J. C. Chiu (2010), Idealized model for changes in equilibrium temperature, mixed layer depth and boundary layer cloud over land in a doubled CO2 climate. J. Geophys. Res.,115, D19108, doi:10.1029/2009JD012888


Betts, A.K., G. Fisch, C. von Randow, M.A.F. Silva Dias, J.C.P. Cohen, R. da Silva and D.R. Fitzjarrald (2009), The Amazonian boundary layer and mesoscale circulations. P163-181 in “Amazonia and Global Change”, Michael Keller, Mercedes Bustamante, John Gash, and Pedro Silva Dias, Editors, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., 186, 576 pp., hardbound, 2009, ISBN 978-0-87590-476-4.

Betts, A. K. (2009), Land-surface-atmosphere coupling in observations and models. J. Adv. Model Earth Syst., Vol. 1, Art. #4, 18 pp., doi: 10.3894/JAMES.2009.1.4 [Published Online 1 Jul. '09] http://james.agu.org/index.php/JAMES/article/view/v1n4/JAMES.2009.1.4

Betts, A. K. (2009), Scientists’ Responsibility to Society. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 90, p. 759 (June)

Balsamo, G., P. Viterbo, A. Beljaars, B. van den Hurk, M. Hirschi, A.K. Betts and K. Scipal (2009), A revised hydrology for the ECMWF model: Verification from field site to terrestrial water storage and impact in the Integrated Forecast System., J. Hydrometeorol., 10, 623–643. ECMWF Tech. Memo 563. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/tm/501-600/tm563.pdf http://ams.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1175%2F2008JHM1068.1

Wang, J., F. J. F. Chagnon, E. Williams, A. K. Betts, N. O. Renno, L. A. T. Machado, G. Bisht, R. Knox and R. L. Bras (2009), Impact of deforestation in the Amazon basin on cloud climatology. PNAS, 106, 3670-3674. doi:10.1073/pnas.0810156106 http://www.pnas.org/content/106/10/3670.full.pdf+html

Betts, A. K. (2009), Vermont experience. Session 53, Role of Media in Dealing with Climate Change, International Scientific Congress on Climate Change: Copenhagen, March 10-12, 2009

Betts, A. K., M. Köhler, and Y. Zhang (2009), Comparison of river basin hydrometeorology in ERA-Interim and ERA-40 reanalyses with observations, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D02101, doi:10.1029/2008JD010761.
ECMWF Tech Memo 568 http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/tm/501-600/tm568.pdf

Betts, A. K. (2008), Benefits from more meteorology students. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 89, p.1468

Betts, A. K. (2008), Land-surface-atmosphere coupling in observations and models. ECMWF Semina on 'The parametrization of sub-grid processes and their interaction with the dynamics', Sept. 1-4, 2008. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/seminar/2008/Betts.pdf

Fernandes, K., R. Fu and A. K. Betts (2008), How well does the ERA-40 surface water budget compare to observations in the Amazon River basin? J. Geophys. Res., 113, D11117, doi:10.1029/2007JD009220.

Luo, Y., E. H. Berbery, K. E. Mitchell and A. K. Betts (2007), Relationships between land surface and near-surface atmospheric variables in the NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis. J. Hydrometeorol. 8, 1184-1203.

Betts, A. K. (2007), Coupling of water vapor convergence, clouds, precipitation, and land-surface processes, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D10108, doi:10.1029/2006JD008191.

Betts, A. K., R. Desjardins and D. Worth (2007): Impact of agriculture, forest and cloud feedback on the surface energy balance in BOREAS. Agric. Forest Meteorol., 142, 156-169, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.08.020 [Special book issue, “The Contribution of Agriculture to the State of Climate” Eds., R.L. Desjardins, M.V.K. Sivakumar, C. de Kimpe, ISSN 0168-1923, Elsevier, 2007]

Hall, F. G., E. Brown de Colstoun, G. J. Collatz, D. Landis, P. Dirmeyer, A. Betts, G. J. Huffman, L. Bounoua, and B. Meeson (2006), ISLSCP Initiative II global data sets: Surface boundary conditions and atmospheric forcings for land atmosphere studies, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D22S01, doi:10.1029/2006JD007366.

Beljaars, A., G. Balsamo, A. Betts and P. Viterbo (2006): Atmosphere/surface interactions in the ECMWF model at high latitudes, ECMWF Seminar on Polar Meteorology, 4-8 September 2006. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/do/references/list/200609

Betts, A.K., M. Zhao, P. A. Dirmeyer and A.C.M. Beljaars (2006), Comparison of ERA40 and NCEP/DOE near-surface datasets with other ISLSCP-II datasets. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D22S04, doi:10.1029/2006JD007174.

Betts, A. K. (2006), Radiative scaling of the nocturnal boundary layer and the diurnal temperature range, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D07105, doi:10.1029/2005JD006560.

Betts, A.K., J. Ball, A. Barr, T. A. Black, J. H. McCaughey and P. Viterbo, (2006), Assessing land-surface-atmosphere coupling in the ERA-40 reanalysis with boreal forest data. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 140, 355-382, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.08.009. Also available as http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/era40/ERA40PRS26_rev1.pdf

Betts, A. K, J.H., Ball, P. Viterbo, A. Dai and J. A. Marengo, (2005): Hydrometeorology of the Amazon in ERA-40. J. Hydrometeorology. 6, 764-774. ERA-40 Project Report 22. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/era40/ERA40PRS22.pdf

Strong, C., J. D. Fuentes, M. Garstang and A. K. Betts, (2005): Daytime Cycle of Low-Level Clouds and the Tropical Convective Boundary Layer in Southwestern Amazonia. J. Appl. Meteor., 44, 1607-1619.

Betts, A. K and P. Viterbo, (2005): Land-surface, boundary layer and cloud-field coupling over the south-western Amazon in ERA-40. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D14108, doi:10.1029/2004JD005702. ERA-40 Project Report 25 (in color) http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/era40/ERA40PRS25.pdf

Helliker, B. R., J. A. Berry, P. S. Bakwin, A.K. Betts, K. J. Davis, A. S. Denning, J. R. Ehleringer, M. P. Butler and D. M. Ricciuto (2005), Regional-scale estimates of forest CO2 and isotope flux based on monthly CO2 budgets of the atmospheric boundary layer. Chapter 5 in “The Carbon Balance of Forest Biomes”. Eds. H. Griffiths and P.G. Jarvis, Published by Taylor & Francis US, 2005, ISBN 1859962149, 9781859962145, 356 pages.

Betts, A. K., (2004): Review of A Soil-Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer Schemes and Large-Scale Hydrological Models, vol. 270 - A.J. Dolman, A.J. Hall, M.L. Kavvas, T. Oki, J.W. Pomeroy (Eds.), IAHS Press.@ Agric. Forest Meteorol., 126, p.183, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2004.05.005.

Bechtold, P., J.-P. Chaboureau, A. Beljaars, A. K. Betts , M. Miller, M. Köhler, M. Miller and J.-L. Redelsperger, (2004): The simulation of the diurnal cycle of convective precipitation over land in a global model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 3119-3137.

Helliker, B. R., J. A. Berry, A. K. Betts, P. S. Bakwin, K. J. Davis, A. S. Denning, J. R. Ehleringer, J. B. Miller, M. P. Butler, and D. M. Ricciuto (2004), Estimates of net CO2 flux by application of equilibrium boundary layer concepts to CO2 and water vapor measurements from a tall tower, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D20106, doi:10.1029/2004JD004532.

Betts, A. K., B. Helliker and J. Berry, (2004), Coupling between CO2, water vapor, temperature and radon and their fluxes in an idealized equilibrium boundary layer over land. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D18103, doi:10.1029/2003JD004420.

Betts, A.K., and A.C.M. Beljaars, (2004): Comparisons of ECMWF ISLSCP-II near-surface dataset from ERA-40 with GEWEX observational data sets. GEWEX News, 14, 1, Feb. 2004. http://www.gewex.org/Feb2004.pdf

Betts, A. K., (2004): Understanding Hydrometeorology using global models. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 85, 1673-1688.

Hall, F.G., A.K. Betts, S. Frolking, R. Brown, J. M. Chen, W. Chen, S. Halldin, D. P. Lettenmaier, and J. Schafer, (2004): The boreal climate. Chapter 7 in Vegetation, Water, Humans and the Climate: a New Perspective on an Interactive System, A Synthesis of the IGBP Core Project, Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle, Eds, Kabat et al., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp. 93-114. ISSN 1619-2435, ISBN 3-540-42400-8.

Betts, A. K., J. H. Ball and P. Viterbo, (2003): Evaluation of the ERA-40 surface water budget and surface temperature for the Mackenzie River basin. J. Hydrometeorology, 4, 1194-1211. Also available in color as ERA-40 Project report series No. 6 from ECMWF, Reading RG2 9AX, UK. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/ERA40/ERA40PRS_6.pdf

Berbery, E. H., Y. Luo, K. E. Mitchell and A. K. Betts, (2003), Eta model-estimated land surface processes and the hydrologic cycle of the Mississippi Basin , J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D16), 8852, doi:10.1029/2002JD003192.

Betts, A.K., and A.C.M. Beljaars, (2003): ECMWF ISLSCP-II near-surface dataset from ERA-40. ERA-40 Project report series No. 8 from ECMWF, Reading RG2 9AX, UK. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/do/references/show?id=85944

Betts, A. K., J. H. Ball, M, Bosilovich, P. Viterbo, Y.-C. Zhang, and W. B. Rossow, (2003): Intercomparison of Water and Energy Budgets for five Mississippi Sub-basins between ECMWF Reanalysis (ERA-40) and NASA-DAO fvGCM for 1990-1999. J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D16), 8618, doi:10.1029/2002JD003127. GCIP-3 issue. Also available in color as ERA-40 Project report series No. 7 from ECMWF, Reading RG2 9AX, UK, http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/ERA40/ERA40PRS_7.pdf

Betts, A.K. (2003), The diurnal cycle over land in “Forests at the Land-Atmosphere interface” [ISBN: 0-85199-677-9], Eds.,.M. Mencuccini, J. Grace, J. Moncrieff and K..McNaughton, pp. 73-93, CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, UK.

Betts, A.K., (2003): Diurnal Cycle. Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, J. R. Holton J. Pyle and J. A. Curry, Eds., Academic Press, London, pp. 640-643. ISBN 0-12-227090-8

Betts, A. K. and C. Jakob, (2002), Study of diurnal cycle of convective precipitation over Amazonia using a single column model. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4732, doi:10.1029/2002JD002264.

Williams, E. and 32 Co-authors, (2002): Contrasting Convective Regimes Over the Amazon: Implications for Cloud Electrification, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8082, doi:10.1029/2001JD000380

Silva Dias, M. A. F., W. Petersen, P.L. Silva Dias, R. Cifelli, A.K. Betts, M. Longo, A.M. Gomes, G.F. Fisch, M.A. Antonio, and R.I. Albrecht, (2002): A case study of convective organization into precipitating lines in the Southwest Amazon during the WETAMC AND TRMM-LBA. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8078, doi:10.1029/2001JD000375.

Betts, A. K., J. Fuentes, M. Garstang, and J. H. Ball, (2002): Surface diurnal cycle and Boundary Layer structure over Rondonia during the rainy season, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8065, doi:10.1029/2001JD000356.

Betts, A. K., L.V. Gatti, A.M. Cordova, M. A. F. Silva Dias, and J. Fuentes, (2002): Transport of ozone to the surface by convective downdrafts at night. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8046, doi:10.1029/2000JD000158.

Betts, A. K. and C. Jakob, (2002), Evaluation of the diurnal cycle of precipitation, surface thermodynamics and surface fluxes in the ECMWF model using LBA data. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8045, doi:10.1029/2001JD000427

Betts, A. K., J. H. Ball, and J. Fuentes, (2002), Calibration and correction of LBA/TRMM Abracos pasture site merged dataset. [LBABettsDatadoc.pdf] Data set and documents available at ftp://daac.ornl.gov/data/lba/physical_climate/Betts

Betts, A. K., P. Viterbo, A.C.M. Beljaars and B.J.J.M. van den Hurk, (2001): Impact of BOREAS on the ECMWF Forecast Model. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 33593-33604.

Barr, A. G., A K. Betts, T.A. Black , J.H. McCaughey and C.S. Smith (2001): Intercomparison of BOREAS Northern and Southern Study Area Surface Fluxes in 1994. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 33543-33550.

Betts, A. K., J. H. Ball, and J. H. McCaughey, (2001): Near-surface climate in the boreal forest. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 33529-33542, doi:10.1029/2001JD900047.

Betts, A. K. and P. Viterbo, (2001): River basin budgets from ERA-40. In “Workshop on Reanalysis”, ERA-40 Project Report series #3, 5-9 November, 2001, pp229-264. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/proceedings/ERA40-reanalysisworkshop/bettsviterbo.pdf

Betts, A. K., (2001): The diurnal cycle over land. ECMWF Semina, Sept. 3-7, 14pp http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/seminar/2001/sem01betts.pdf

Van den Hurk, B.J.J.M., P. Viterbo, A.C.M. Beljaars and A. K. Betts, 2000: Offline validation of the ERA40 surface scheme. ECMWF Tech Memo, 295, 43 pp., Eur. Cent. For Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield Park, Reading RG2 9AX, England,UK. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/tm/001-300/tm295.pdf

Betts, A. K., 2000: Idealized model for equilibrium boundary layer over land. J. Hydrometeorol., 1, 507-523.

Silva Dias, M.A., A..J. Dolman, S. Rutledge, E. Zipser, P. Silva Dias, G. Fisch, C. Nobre, P. Kabat, B. Ferrier, A. Betts, J. Halverson, M. Garstang, J. Fuentes, A. Manzi, H. Rocha, J.A. Marengo, C. Morales and N.J. Bink, 2000: Convective systems and surface processes in Amazonia during the WETAMC/LBA. BAHC News, 7, 3-7.

Betts, A. K. and P. Viterbo, 2000: Hydrological budgets and surface energy balance of seven subbasins of the Mackenzie River from the ECMWF model. J. Hydrometeorol., 1, 47-60.

Roads, J. and A. K. Betts, 2000: NCEP/NCAR and ECMWF Reanalysis Surface Water and Energy Budgets for the GCIP Region. J. Hydrometeorol., 1, 88-94.

Betts, A., and P. Viterbo, 2000. BOREAS AFM-08 ECMWF Hourly Surface and Upper Air Data for the SSA and NSA. Data set. Available on-line [http://www.daac.ornl.gov/BOREAS/guides/AFM08_ECMWF.html] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. doi:10.3334/ORNLDAAC/523.


Herring, D., (1999), Should we talk about the weather? Improving global forecasts with BOREAS research. NASA Earth Observatory Feature Article, Boreal ecosystem series, 3. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/BOREASAlbedo

(Plain English review of Alan Betts research)

Viterbo, P. and A.K. Betts, 1999: The impact on ECMWF forecasts of changes to the albedo of the boreal forests in the presence of snow. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 27803-27810.

Entekhabi, D., G.R. Asrar, A.K. Betts, K.J. Beven, R.L. Bras, C.L. Duffy, T. Dunne, R.D. Koster, D.P. Lettenmaier, D.B. McLaughlin, W.J. Shuttleworth, M.T. van Genuchten, M.-Y. Wei, and E.F. Wood, 1999: An Agenda for Land-surface Hydrology Research and a Call for the Second International Hydrological Decade. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80, 2043-2058.

Betts, A.K., P. Viterbo, A.C.M. Beljaars and B. Van den Hurk, 1999: Use of field data to diagnose land-surface interaction. Proc. ECMWF Semina on Diagnosis of Models and Data Assimilation systems. Sept. 6-10, 1999, Reading, United Kingdom, 347-364. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/seminar/1999/sem1999betts.pdf

Betts, A. K., J.H. Ball and P. Viterbo, 1999: Basin-scale surface water and energy budgets for the Mississippi from the ECMWF Reanalysis. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 19293-19306. 1999JD900056.pdf).

Viterbo, P. and A.K. Betts, 1999: The impact of the ECMWF reanalysis soil water on forecasts of the July 1993 Mississippi Flood. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 19361-19366.

Betts, A. K., M. L. Goulden, and S.C. Wofsy, 1999: Controls on evaporation in a boreal spruce forest. J. Climate, 12, 1601-1618.

Betts, A. K., P. Viterbo and E. Wood, 1998: Surface energy and water balance for the Arkansas-Red River basin from the ECMWF reanalysis. J. Climate, 11, 2881-2897.

Betts A. K., P. Viterbo, A.C.M. Beljaars, H-L. Pan, S-Y. Hong, M. L.Goulden and S.C. Wofsy, 1998: Evaluation of the land-surface interaction in the ECMWF and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses over grassland (FIFE) and boreal forest (BOREAS). J. Geophys. Res., 103, 23079-23085.

Betts, A. K., 1998: Evaluating the land-surface component of NWP models using field experiment data, specifically BOREAS. ECMWF/WCRP/GEWEX Workshop, 29 June - 2 July 1998. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/workshop/1998/Modelling/wsmodelling_betts.pdf

Betts, A. K., 1998: Climate-Convection feedbacks: some further issues. Climatic Change. 39, 35-38. DOI 10.1023/A:1005323805826.

Betts A. K. and J. H. Ball, 1998: FIFE surface climate and site-average dataset: 1987-1989. J. Atmos Sci , 55, 1091-1108.

Betts, A. K., 1998: Surface diurnal cycle over Venezuela. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 67, 213-216. (Herbert Riehl Memorial Vol.).

Betts A. K., P. Viterbo and A.C.M. Beljaars, 1998: Comparison of the land-surface interaction in the ECMWF reanalysis model with the 1987 FIFE data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 186-198.

Barr, A.G. A.K. Betts, R. Desjardins and J. I. MacPherson, 1997: Comparison of regional surface fluxes from boundary-layer budgets and aircraft measurements above boreal forest. J. Geophys. Res, 102, 29213-29218.

Barr, A.G. and A.K. Betts, 1997: Radiosonde Boundary-layer budgets above a Boreal forest. J. Geophys. Res, 102, 29205-29212.

Betts A. K. and J. H. Ball, 1997: Albedo over the boreal forest. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 28901-28910.

Betts, A. K., J. H. Ball, B. J. Smith and S. R. Shewchuk, 1997: Comparison of SRC/BOREAS and AES humidity sensors at Meadow Lake , Saskatchewan. J. Geophys. Res.,102, 28911-28914.

MacPherson, J. I. and A. K. Betts, 1997: Aircraft encounters with strong coherent vortices over the boreal forest. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 29231-29234.

Betts, A.K., F.Chen, K. Mitchell, and Z.Janjic, 1997: Assessment of land-surface and boundary layer models in 2 operational versions of the Eta Model using FIFE data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 2896-2915.

Betts, A. K., 1997: Review of 'Coupling Large-scale Atmospheric and Hydrologic Models' by Schultz, Hornbogen, Viterbo and Noihlan, IAHS press, Institute of Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB, U.K. Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 83, 511.

Sellers, P.J., R.E. Dickinson, D.A. Randall, A.K. Betts, F.G. Hall, J.A. Berry, C.J. Collatz, A.S. Denning, H.A. Mooney, C.A. Nobre, and N. Sato, 1997: Modeling the exchanges of energy, water and carbon between the continents and the atmosphere. Science, 275, 502-509.

Betts, A.K., 1997: Trade Cumulus: Observations and Modeling. Chapter 4 (pp 99-126) in The Physics and Parameterization of Moist Atmospheric Convection, Ed. R. K. Smith, NATO ASI Series C: Vol. 505, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 498pp.

Betts, A.K.: 1997, The Parameterization of deep convection, Chapter 10 (pp 255-279) in The Physics and Parameterization of Moist Atmospheric Convection, Ed. R. K. Smith, NATO ASI Series C: Vol. 505, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 498pp.

Betts, A. K., 1996: The parameterization of deep convection: a review. ECMWF Workshop on “New insights and approaches to convective parameterization”, 4-7 Nov., 1996, Reading, U.K., pp 166-188. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/workshop/1996/New%20Insights/newinsights_betts.pdf

Betts, A.K. and A.G. Barr, 1996: FIFE 1987 Sonde Budget revisited. J. Geophys. Res. 101, 23285-23288.

Betts, A.K., S-Y. Hong and H-L. Pan, 1996: Comparison of NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis with 1987 FIFE data. Mon. Wea.Rev., 124, 1480-1498.

Chen,F.,K. Mitchell, J. Schaake, Y. Xue, H-L. Pan, V. Koren, Q. Duan, and A. Betts, 1996: Modeling of land-surface evaporation by four schemes and comparison with FIFE observations. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 7251-7268.

Betts, A. K., J.H. Ball, A.C.M. Beljaars, M.J. Miller and P. Viterbo, 1996: The land-surface-atmosphere interaction: a review based on observational and global modeling perspectives. J. Geophys. Res. 101, 7209-7225.

Beljaars, A.C.M., P. Viterbo, M.J. Miller and A.K. Betts, 1996: The anomalous rainfall over the United States during July 1993: sensitivity to land surface parameterization and soil moisture anomalies. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 362-383.

Betts, A.K. and J.H. Ball, 1995: The FIFE surface diurnal cycle climate. J. Geophys. Res. 100, 25679-25693.

Betts A.K., Bretherton, C., and E. Klinker, 1995: Relation between mean boundary layer structure and cloudiness at the R/V Valdivia during ASTEX. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 2752-2762.

Bretherton, C., E. Klinker, A.K. Betts, and J.A. Coakley, 1995: Comparison of ceilometer, satellite and synoptic measurements of boundary layer cloudiness and the ECMWF diagnostic cloud parameterization scheme during ASTEX. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 2736-2751.

Emanuel, K., D. Raymond, A. Betts, L. Bosart, C. Bretherton, K. Droegemeier, B. Farrell, J.M. Fritsch, R. Houze, M. LeMone, D. Lilly, R. Rotunno, M. Shapiro, R. Smith, and A. Thorpe, 1995: Report of the First Prospectus Development Team of the U.S. Weather Research Program to NOAA and the NSF. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 76, 1194-1208.

Betts, A. K., 1995: A lagged mixing parameterization for the dry convective boundary layer. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 1912-1915.

Barr, A. G. And A. K. Betts, 1994: Preliminary Summary of the BOREAS upper air soundings, Candle Lake and Thompson 1994 Intensive Field Campaigns. Available from AES, NHRC, 11 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon, SK S7N 3H5, Canada.

Betts, A. K., 1994: Relation between equilibrium evaporation and the saturation pressure budget. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 71, 235-245.

Slingo, J., M. Blackburn, A. Betts, R. Brugge, B. Hoskins, M. Miller, L.Steenman-Clark, and J. Thuburn, 1994: Mean Climate and Transience in the Tropics of the UGAMP GCM. Part I: Sensitivity to Convective parametrization. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 120, 861-880.

Betts, A.K. and J.H. Ball, 1994: Budget analysis of FIFE-1987 sonde data. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 3655-3666.

Betts, A.K. and M.J. Miller, 1993. The Betts-Miller scheme. Chapter 9 in "The Representation of Cumulus Convection in Numerical Models of the Atmosphere". (Eds. K.A. Emanuel and D.J. Raymond.) Amer. Meteor. Soc., Meteor. Mon. 24, No 46, 107-121.

Betts, A.K. and A. Beljaars, 1993: Estimation of effective roughness length for heat and momentum from FIFE data. Atmos. Res. 30, 251-261.

Betts, A.K., J.H. Ball, and A.C.M. Beljaars, 1993: Comparison between the land surface response of the European Centre model and the FIFE-1987 data. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 119, 975-1001.

Betts, A.K., 1993: Mixing line parameterizations for cloudy boundary layers. ECMWF/GCSS Workshop on the parameterization of cloud topped BL's, June 8-11, 1993. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/workshop/1993/Parametrization/betts.pdf

Browning, K. A., A.K. Betts, P. R. Jonas, R. Kershaw, M. Manton, P. J. Mason, M. Miller, M. W. Moncrieff, H. Sundqvist, W. K. Tao, M. Tiedtke, P. V. Hobbs, J. Mitchell, E. Raschke, R. E. Stewart, and J. Simpson, 1993: The GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 74, 387B399.

Betts, A.K., 1992: FIFE Atmospheric Boundary Layer Budget Methods. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 18523-18532.

Betts, A.K., R.L. Desjardins, and J.I. MacPherson, 1992: Budget analysis of the Boundary Layer grid flights during FIFE-1987. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 18533-18546.

Beljaars, A. C. M. and A. K. Betts, 1992: Validation of the boundary layer representation in the ECMWF model. ECMWF Semina proceedings, 7-11 Sept. 1992, Validation of models over Europe, Vol II, 159-195. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/pdf/seminar/1992/validation2beljaars.pdf

Betts A.K., P. Minnis, W. Ridgway, and D. F. Young, 1992: Integration of satellite and surface data using an equilibrium radiative-convective boundary layer model. J. Appl. Meteor., 31, 340-350.

Betts, A. K., and W. Ridgway, 1992: Tropical boundary layer equilibrium in the last Ice Age. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 2529-2534.

Betts, A.K., 1991: "The Role of Clouds in Climate Change", prepared statement and discussion before the Hearing of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, on "Global Change Research: Water Vapor and the Climate System", October 7, 1991. US Govt. Printing Office, ISBN 0-16-038431-1. AKB statement, P33-37, and discussion P56-92. Web trace: http://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/656547

Sui, C-H., K-M. Lau and A. K. Betts, 1991: An Equilibrium Model for the coupled ocean-atmosphere Boundary Layer in the tropics. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 3151-3163.

Betts, A.K., and J. Bartlo, 1991: The density temperature and the dry and wet virtual adiabats. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119, 169-175.

Zipser, E.J., A.K. Betts, F. Ruggiero, and B. Hinton, 1990: Tropical Meteorology: Panel Report, Radar in Meteorology, D. Atlas, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 426-432.

Betts, A. K., 1990: Greenhouse warming and the tropical water budget. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 71, 1464-1465.

Betts, A. K., 1990: Convective boundary layer equilibrium over a tropical ocean. Indo-US Seminar, 6-10 Aug. 1990. Published in "Physical Processes in Atmospheric Models", (Eds. D.R.Sikka and S.S.Sikka), Wiley Eastern Ltd., India, 32-59.

Betts, A.K., and R. Boers, 1990: A cloudiness transition in a marine boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 1480-1497.

Betts, A.K., R.L. Desjardins, J.I. MacPherson, and R.D. Kelly, 1990: Boundary Layer Heat and Moisture Budgets from FIFE. Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 50, 109-137.

Betts, A.K., 1990: Diurnal variation of California coastal stratocumulus from two days of boundary layer soundings. Tellus, 41A, 302-304.

Grossman R.L. and A.K. Betts, 1990: Air-sea interaction during an extreme cold air outbreak from the eastern coast of the United States. Mon. Wea. Rev. 118, 324-342.


Betts, A.K. and W. L. Ridgway, 1989: Climatic equilibrium of the atmospheric convective boundary layer over a tropical ocean. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 2621-2641.

Betts, A. K., 1989: Mean inversion strength of the convective boundary layer over the oceans. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 115, 997-998.

Betts, A. K., 1989: Idealized stratocumulus models and cloud layer thickness. Tellus, 41A, 246-254. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0870.1989.tb00379.x

Boers, R., and A. K. Betts, 1988: Saturation point structure of marine stratocumulus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci. 45, 1156-1175.

Betts, A. K. and W. Ridgway, 1988: Coupling of the radiative, convective and surface fluxes over the equatorial Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 522-536.

Betts, A. K., and Harshvardhan, 1987: Thermodynamic constraint on the cloud liquid water feedback in climate models. J. Geophys. Res., 92, 8483-8485.

Heckley, W. A., M. J. Miller, and A. K. Betts, 1987: An example of hurricane tracking and forecasting with a global analysis/fore¬casting system. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 68, 226-229.

Betts, A. K., and J. Simpson, 1987: Thermodynamic budget diagrams for the hurricane subcloud layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 842-849.

Betts, A. K., and B. A. Albrecht, 1987: Conserved variable analysis of boundary layer thermodynamic structure over the tropical oceans. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 83-99.

Betts, A. K., 1986: A new convective adjustment scheme. Part I: Observational and theoretical basis. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 112, 677 692.

Betts, A. K. and M. J. Miller, 1986: A new convective adjustment scheme. Part II: Single column tests using GATE wave, BOMEX, ATEX, and Arctic Airmass data sets. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 112, 693 -710.

Betts, A. K., 1985: Mixing line analysis of clouds and cloudy boundary layers. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 2751 2763.

Betts, A. K., 1985: Vector representation of Trade cumulus thermodynamic fluxes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113, 2173 2175.

Betts, A. K. and M. J. Miller, 1985: A new convective adjustment scheme. ECMWF Tech. Rep. No. 43. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/tr/tr43.pdf

Betts, A K, 1985: A new convective adjustment scheme. NAS-NRC Proceedings of the First National Workshop on the Global Weather Experiment, Vol. 2, Pt. 2 p 706-724 (SEE N86-24142 14-47); UNITED STATES.

Betts, A. K., 1984: Boundary layer thermodynamics of a High Plains severe storm. Mon. Wea.Rev., 112, 2199 2211.

Betts, A. K. and M. J. Miller, 1984: A new convective adjustment scheme, Pts. I and II. ECMWF technical Report No. 43, ECMWF, Reading, RG2 9AX, England, 68 pp.

Silva Dias, M. F., A. K. Betts, and D. E. Stevens, 1984: A linear spectral model of tropical mesoscale systems: sensitivity studies. J.Atmos. Sci., 41, 1704 ¬1716.

Betts, A. K., 1983: Atmospheric convective structure and a convection scheme based on saturation point methods. ECMWF Workshop on “Convection in large-scale numerical models” 28 Nov.-1 Dec, 1983, Reading U. K., pp.69-94. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/workshop/1983/Convection/betts.pdf

Betts, A. K., 1983: Thermodynamics of mixed stratocumulus layers: saturation point budgets. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 2655-2670.

Betts, A. K., 1982: Cloud Thermodynamic Models in Saturation Point Coordinates. J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 2182- 2191.

Betts, A. K., 1982: Saturation Point Analysis of Moist Convective Overturning. J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 1484 1505.

Houze, R. A., and A. K.Betts, 1981: Convection in GATE. Rev. Geophys. and Space Phys., 19, 541-576.

Houze, R. A., and A. K. Betts, 1980: Clouds, Convection and Convective Models. WMO Monograph: Synthesis GATE Scientific Results, Kiev, 1980.


Betts, A. K., and M. F. Silva Dias, 1979: Unsaturated Downdraft Thermodynamics in Cumulonimbus. J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 1061-1071.

Albrecht, B., A.K. Betts, W. Schubert, and S.K. Cox, 1979: Model of the Thermodynamic Structure of the Trade-Wind Boundary Layer: Part I. Theoretical Formulation and Sensitivity Tests J. Atmos.Sci., 36, 73-89.

Mower, R. N., G. Austin, A. K. Betts, C. Gautier, R. Grossman, J. Kelley, F. Marks and D. Martin, 1979: A Case Study of GATE Convective Activity. Atmosphere-Ocean, 17, 46-59.

McNab, A. L., and A. K. Betts, 1978: A Mesoscale Budget Study of Cumulus Convection. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106, pp. 1317-1331.

Betts, A.K., 1978: Convection in the Tropics. RS/RMS/AMS/DMG Conf. on 'Meteorology over the Tropical Oceans". Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. Supplement, 105-132. Edited by D.B. Shaw, published by the Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 104 Oxford Road, Reading RG1 7LL, UK.

Betts, A. K., 1977: An assessment of progress towards achieving the central objectives of GATE. II: Cluster and cloud-scales. Report of the GATE Workshop, NCAR, Boulder, CO., July-August 1977.

Miller, M. J., and A. K. Betts, 1977: Traveling Convective Storms over Venezuela. Mon. Wea. Rev., 105, pp. 833-848.

Betts, A. K., 1977: Comments on 'Budget Studies of Heat Flux Profiles in the Convective Boundary Layer over Land'. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 103, pp. 216-217.

Betts, A. K., 1976: Modeling Subcloud Layer Structure and Interaction with Shallow Cumulus Layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, pp. 2363-2382.

Betts, A. K., 1976: The Thermodynamic Transformation of the Tropical Subcloud Layer by Precipitation and Downdrafts. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, pp. 1008-1020.

Betts, A. K., K. Fraedrich, M. Miller, M. Moncrieff, R. Pearce and P. Rowntree, 1976: Parameterization of Shallow and Deep Convection. Section 3 of Report of Study Conference on the Development of Numerical Models for the Tropics. Exeter, 4-10 April, 1976, GARP Report No. 13, WMO, C.P. No.5, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland.

Betts, A. K., 1976: Letter to the Editor on "Scientists in Society". Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 57, p460.

Betts, A. K., R. W. Grover and M. W. Moncrieff, 1976: Structure and Motion of Tropical Squall Lines over Venezuela. Q.J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 102, pp. 395-404.

Betts, A. K., and D. R. Rodenhuis, 1975: Report on the Field Phase of the GATE Scientific Programme. Chapter 6, Convection Subprogramme. GATE Report No. 16, WMO-ICSU.

Betts, A. K., 1975: Parametric Interpretation of Trade-Wind Cumulus Budget Studies. J. Atmos. Sci., 32, 1934-1945.

Betts, A. K., 1975: Review of Analytical Methods in Planetary Boundary Layer Modelling" by R.A. Brown. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 56, pp. 478-479.

Rodenhuis, D. R., and A. K. Betts, 1974: The Convection Subprogram for GATE, W.M.O. GATE Report No. 7.

Betts, A. K., 1974: Thermodynamic Classification of Tropical Convective Soundings. Mon. Wea. Rev., 102, pp.760-764.

Garstang, M., and A. K. Betts, 1974: A Review of the Tropical Boundary Layer and Cumulus Convection: Structure, Parameterization, and Modelling. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 55, pp. 1195-1205.

Betts, A. K., 1974: Further Comments on "A Comparison of the Equivalent Potential Temperature and the Static Energy". J. Atmos. Sci., 31, pp.1713-1715.

Betts, A. K., F. J. Dugan and R. W. Grover, 1974: Residual Errors of the VIZ Radio¬sonde Hygristor as Deduced from Observations of Subcloud Layer Structure. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 55, pp. 1123-1125.

Betts, A. K., 1974: Reply to comments on "Non-Precipitating Cumulus Convection and its Parameterization." Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 100, pp. 469-471.

Moore, D.A. and A. K. Betts, 1974: Diagnostic Tests of Models for the Thermal Structure of the Non-precipitating Convective Boundary Layer. Atmos. Sci. Paper No. 217, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO 80521. 70pp

Betts, A. K., 1974: The Scientific Basis and Objectives of the U.S. Convection Subprogram for the GATE. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 55, pp. 304-313.

Betts, A. K., 1973: A Relationship Between Stratification, Cloud-Depth and Permitted Cloud Radii. J. Appl. Meteor., 12, pp. 890-893.

Betts, A. K., 1973: Draft of the Convection Subprogram for the GATE. Prepared for the International Scientific Management Group for the GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment, 88 pp.

Betts, A. K., and F. J. Dugan, 1973: Empirical Formula for Saturation Pseudoadiabats and Equivalent Potential Temperature. J. Appl. Meteor., 12, pp. 731-732.

Betts, A. K., 1973: A Composite Mesoscale Cumulonimbus Budget. J. Atmos. Sci., 30, pp. 597-610.

Betts, A. K., 1973: Precalibration of the VIZ-NWS Radiosonde. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 54, pp. 222-223.

Betts, A. K., 1973: Non-Precipitating Convection and Its Parameterization. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 99, 178-196.

Riehl, H., and A. K. Betts, 1972: Humidity Observations with the 1972 U.S. Radiosonde Instrument. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 53, pp. 887-888

Betts, A. K. (1970): Cumulus Convection. Ph.D. Thesis, University of London, 151 pp. Available from http://alanbetts.com/research/paper/cumulus-convection/#abstract


Betts, A. K. and J. F. R. McIlveen, 1969: The Energy Formula in a Moving Reference Frame. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 95, pp. 639-642.

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